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    Unseen Coworkers: Office Space Bacteria
    By Caitlin Kight | July 26th 2012 05:55 AM | 5 comments | Print | E-mail | Track Comments
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    If you're a germophobe, you won't want to read a recent PLoS ONE report detailing the abundance and diversity of bacteria inhabiting urban office spaces. That's because researchers from San Diego State University and the University of Tucson found almost 4,000 "operational taxonomic units" (or, for lack of a better word, species) belonging to >500 genera across 20 bacterial divisions--all in just 54 offices distributed across 3 cities.

    Groups most commonly represented include Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria--all of which include pathogenic members that can cause serious infections in humans. San Francisco workers can congratulate themselves on having the lowest bacterial abundances measured in the study; likewise, female readers can feel smug about the fact that office spaces belonging to women had significantly fewer bacteria than those utilized by men.

    Those looking to minimize contact with microbes should take particular care near phones and chairs; researchers found that these harbored much higher bacterial abundances than the other office surfaces they sampled.


    (This study highlights a whole new reason why hand-washing is important at work. Image courtesy of Gary Fage.)

    Contrary to what you might think, the study wasn't designed to make your skin crawl, but instead to improve our understanding of the "dynamic microbial environments" found in anthropogenic areas. Although previous studies have examined bacterial diversity in popular human hangouts like schools, houses, and airplanes, very little work has focused on offices--where millions of people worldwide spend the bulk of their time each day. Developing a "baseline" of bacterial diversity in offices may be useful for understanding the dynamics behind infectious outbreaks, as well as for determining which features of office buildings--including microclimate and space usage patterns--contribute to the spread of pathogens.

    To collect their samples, the researchers visited 30 offices (15 belonging to men, 15 belonging to women) in each of 3 cities (San Francisco, New York, and Tucson). In each office, they swabbed similar-sized patches of the same 5 surfaces: chairs, phones, computer mice, computer keyboards, and desktops. A cell-counting assay revealed that chair and phone surfaces contained the highest levels of bacterial DNA, and so samples from these locations (n = 54 offices) were subjected to "deep-sequencing" analyses that allowed the researchers to identify bacteria down to the genus level. The resulting genera abundance patterns were then correlated with city, surface type, and sex of (human) office inhabitant.

    (E. coli, one of many types of Proteobacteria. Image courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Life.)

    According to the researchers, sex-related variations in bacterial abundances likely stem from the fact that men are known to wash their hands and brush their teeth less frequently than women (a claim supported by actual scientific research). Additionally, men are generally larger than women, and therefore possess a greater surface area that can transport and shed hitchhiking bacteria.

    Indeed, humans were "clearly the primary source of office bacterial contamination," as shown by the fact that the most common genera are known to inhabit human skin or cavities. However, the study also revealed a surprising prevalence of bacteria associated with the human digestive tract--potentially suggesting that post-bathroom-visit hand-washing behaviors could be improved among office workers. Environmental microbes were also common, though researchers were surprised that this category included thermophilic bacteria that are normally associated with hot springs. This result indicates that this hardy group of species is capable of dispersing--and surviving--over quite an impressive range. In fact, the researchers suggest that sampling techniques such as the ones used in this study might be helpful for performing future in-depth investigations of microbe dispersal in general.


    (Image courtesy of XMDR.)

    One other useful follow-up study will be an examination of diversity at the level of species and strains. However, this will require the development of "easier and less expensive" techniques. Such studies may be useful not only for illuminating the spread of disease--as mentioned above--but also the spread of genes: Bacteria often share genetic material with their neighbors through the process of horizontal, or lateral, gene transfer. Thus, data on which species intermingle in modern human environments may allow scientists to better understand and predict the evolution of microbes in anthropogenic areas.

    ---

    Hewitt, K.M., Gerba, C.P., Maxwell, S.L., and Kelley, S.T. 2012. Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas. PLoS ONE 7(5):e37849.

    Comments

    Gerhard Adam
    It's about time that studies began to reflect more of the microbial environment we inhabit.  While I don't believe you intended to, there's still a kind of "us vs them" mentality that seems to go with any discussion of microbes.  It's as if we somehow need to do better to control them.

    Obviously there are issues with pathogens, but it is important for people to recognize that we are absolutely and unequivocally dependent on our bacterial "co-workers".  We hardly know any of them, since the overwhelming majority have never been identified, or cultured.  Most don't survive the lab environment.

    Equally important is the recognition that without our microbial partners, we would die. 

    One of the elements that occurs in these studies [I'm not sure if it was this one specifically], but attempting to understand the relationship between microbes that populate our indoor versus outdoor environments.  This becomes important because with buildings offering fewer opportunities for interaction with the outside world, this affects the ecosystem of the microbes we share space with.

    This changes the interaction of the microbes we encounter, and may have an impact on the ability for pathogens to thrive or become infectious.

    While I can empathize with people that might be "germophobes", it makes about as much sense as been a "food-o-phobe" ... doesn't much matter because if you succeeded in killing all the microbes, you'd also have killed yourself.
    Mundus vult decipi
    Very good information about germs.

    John Hasenkam
    doesn't much matter because if you succeeded in killing all the microbes, you'd also have killed yourself. 



    Neat, have argued the same thing on my blog. Some of the research coming out on this is fascinating. I buy this antiseptic which states that it will kill 99.99% of all microbes. To wit I think: of which 99.99% are probably harmless and some even important to my health. We are in the process of transforming the microbial world and have absolutely no idea where that will lead us. The recent surges in immunological related disorders is now argued to be consistent with The Hygiene Hypothesis. I find this hypothesis very paradoxical but the data keeps coming in to support it. Of particular concern is the possibility that our inflammatory status is modulated by some pathogens and the prevalence of inflammatory related conditions in modern society. I have always been puzzled why inflammation, which is such a vital physiological process, so often becomes aberrant. The Hygiene Hypothesis may provide an explanation for that. For eg, recent studies have found that gut inflammation can be reduced by introducing some gut parasitic worms. The most surprising study I saw though was how low numbers of gram negative bacteria induced an anti-inflammatory response. Go figure! I still don't believe that.


    The above is another example of how rapidly we are changing the ecosphere. It is a fascinating time to live because we are going to see so many large transformations over the coming decades that are going to present us with huge adaptive challenges. It is going to be fun. 
    Gerhard Adam
    Consider this recent study which suggests that the microbiota is essential to a healthy human pregnancy, but initiating changes that would normally be detrimental to a health non-pregnant adult.

    http://www.sciencecodex.com/unhealthy_changes_in_gut_microbes_benefit_pregnant_women-95969
    Mundus vult decipi
    As a slight germaphobe, this really freaks me out - I'm glad I'm not hotdesking and only have to manage keeping my office clean!

    Stacey @Interaction