According to Grossman and Loeb (2010),“the variation in teacher preparation pathways can propel understanding of how best to prepare teachers.” (p.22). Using this premise, I was able to synthesize the different pathways of actual teaching deliveries by the teachers who are teaching chemistry topics for engineering programs.

 I was doing my dissertation and one of the problems required me to observe engineering classes on general chemistry select topics. The classes that were observed were those of the topics the students found to be difficult in the previous departmental examinations (term examinations) for engineering general chemistry course. These topics include atomic structure and periodic table, chemical equation and reactions, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, chemical nomenclature and gas laws. Item analysis on the previous departmental examination results was used to identify these topics.

 In the process of classroom observations, I found commonality on the teachers steps and pathways in teaching so as their differences in routes as they cycle to the steps and pathways. I was then able to synthesize a new model of classroom teaching which I call the “Five-Step, Five-Cycle Teaching Model”

 There are five (5) steps in this model namely, Lecture/Discussion, Student activity, Presentation, Feedback and Assignment. There are also five (5) cycles the model proposes. Cycle 1 cycles around four steps: Lecture/discussion, Students’ activity, Presentation, and Feedback. Cycle 2 revolves around three (3) steps; Assignment, Presentation, and Feedback. Cycle 3 revolves around four (4) steps: Feedback, Lecture/discussion,assignment and Presentation. Cycle 4 revolves around three (3) steps: feedback, students’ activity, presentation. Cycle 5 revolves around; Assignment,lecture/discussion, students’ activity,presentation, feedback. In this model, the teacher can start at any step and goes through any of the cycles. The teacher may shift from one cycle to another as the need arises.

 The advantage of this model is that it allows the teacher to prepare topics of long coverage that require two or more class sessions. The model was designed to be student-centered so that it proposes the incorporation of the learning style model of Felder and Silverman's (1988). This model is also a major part of FIER ( Formulation, Implementation, Evaluation, and Review/Revision), pronounced as "fire", a proposed instructional design for engineering general chemistry course (Tabinas, 2012)

 My next article will dwell on this model and FIER in more detail. For now, this article answers the question: how to teach inorganic nomenclature to non-chemistry major such as engineering students  in application to the five-step, five-cycle teaching model?

 Below is a sample teaching plan designed for naming and writing simple inorganic chemical formulas in application to the “5-Step, 5-Cycle Teaching Model’.

 The teaching plan has the following components: Preparation Stage, Topic, Dates of Use, Objectives,Time Frame, Material, Teaching Delivery ( using the 5-Step, 5-Cycle Teaching Model), Summative Assessment, and References/Textbook.

Here is the teaching plan:


TOPIC: Naming and Writing Chemical Formulas of Simple Inorganic Bases, Oxides, Acids, and Salts (BOAS)

DATES OF USE: e.g.  MWF, June 25, 27, &29,2012 (one hour per meeting/session or TTh; June 26&28, 2012 (one and a half per meeting/session)


 Through varied teaching strategies and activities, the students are expected to be able to do the following correctly:

 1. name the chemical formulas of simple inorganic compounds;

 2. write the chemical formulas of simple inorganic compounds; 

 3. demonstrate the use of IUPAC rules in naming and writing simple inorganic acids, bases, salts and oxides; and 

 4. differentiate acids, bases, salts and oxides on the basis of their chemical formulas.

TIME FRAME: 2 to 3 hours ( 2 meetings TTH class, 3 meetings MWF class)

MATERIALS: transparency acetates,charts, or powerpoint slides; dilute solutions of BOAS


 CYCLE ONE from “Lecture/discussion with intro” to “Assignment”


  1. Introduction

    • Write on the board or show troughtransparency the objective of the lesson and read it to the class.(verbal/visual)

    • Write the outline of the topics onthe board as follows (sequential):

    1. Naming and writing formulas ofAcids

    2. Naming and writing formulas ofsalts, oxides and bases

    • Let the students understand theimportance of being literate in naming and writing formulas(intuitive/ reflective/ global)

    • Introduce some common acids andtheir uses. Show pictures such as vinegar bottle for acetic acid,stomach for stomach gastric juice, muriatic acid bottle forhydrochloric acid, soft drink bottles for carbonic acid andphosphoric acid.(visual/sensing)

    • Introduce some common propertiesof acids such as its sour taste and show its reaction with bluelitmus paper.(visual/sensing)

    1. Lecture Proper

    • Show at least formulas of threeacid such as carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid,

    and acetic acid(visual/verbal)

    • Ask the student the question: whatatom is common to all formulas?(reflective/global/intuitive)

    • Point out, as written, theformula of  inorganic acids  (as defined by Arrhenius) always start with hydrogen.(sensing/intuitive)

    • Point out that acids in waterdissociate to yield hydrogen ion as defined by Arrhenius and pausefor seconds to give the students the time to think how thedefinition relate to the formula of the acids (intuitive/reflective)

    • Show formulas of bases [NaOH andMg(OH)2], oxides [Fe2O3 and FeO], and salts[ NaCl,Ca3(PO4)2].(verbal/sensing)

    • Point out that as written,formulas of bases, oxides and salts do not start withhydrogen(intuitive/reflective) .

    • Point out that in writingformulas, when the cation and anion form compounds the charges areneutralize so that no charge is seen in the formulagiven(intuitive/reflective/global).

    • Show to the students by going backto the formulas written on the board where the subscripts came fromand why in some formulas there is a need to useparentheses.(verbal/intuitive/reflective/global)

    • Ask the students to go to page 66of the book “ Naming and Writing Simple Inorganic ChemicalFormulas” published by C&E Publishing Inc. (active)

    • Show through transparency, drawncharts, or power point presentation, the Flowchart C found on page66.(visual)

    • Read to the students the flowchartfollowing through the flow in naming simple inorganic acids. Pausefrom time to time to allow time for the students to think out whatis being learned.(verbal/visual/reflective/sequential/global)


     Activity 1. Let students taste, touch, and smell dilute acids, bases, oxides,&

     Salts and let them write their observations.(active/sensing/visual/reflective


     Activity 2. Distribute to the students papers that have the list, in random order, of anions with their symbols. Let the students group the anions with their symbols according to common suffix. One group for those with the suffix -ide, another group for those with suffix –ite and another group for those with the suffix –ate. This will let the students become familiar with some commonanions.(active/sensing/reflective/ intuitive)

    • Following the Flowchart on page66, let the students answer Practice Task No. 6 on page 39(sensing/active/sequential)

    • Go around and see to it thatstudents are answering the task. Try to answer individually theneeds of students who have concerns.

    • Take note and consolidate thequestions/ needs of students with concerns and reserve them for Step4. Feedback.

    Activity 3. Group students by pairs. Let the students have their nearest seat mate as partner. (active)

    • Let the students show theiranswers to their partners. Let them discuss their answers and decidewhich answers are to be submitted to theteacher.(active/reflective/intuitive/global)

    • Collect the group answers.


    • Call students at random orpurposively, to write their answers on the board. in other topics,students may be ask to explain their answers- (active)

    Note: Class presentation of outputs by students, in other topics, may be done in different creative ways, catering to the different learning styles of their classmates.

    Step 4 FEEDBACK

    • Ask the class to comment on theanswers on the board (reflective/intuitive/global)

    • Mention the questions and concernsof some students that you gathered during the students’ acivity. Address them to the entire class and ask for answers orcomments.(reflective/intuitive/global)

    • Call student to underline thewrong answers on the board and explain why it iswrong.(active/reflective/global)

    • Call another student to write thecorrect answers on the board and have themencircled.(visual/sensing/active/intuitive/reflective)


    1. Let the students write the correctformulas and names of acids that can be drawn from the anions theygrouped according tosuffixes.(active/reflective/sensing/intuitive/global)

    2. Let them write their answers ingroups according to the suffixes of the anions used as follows:(active/reflective/intuitive/global/sequential)

  • Anion with suffix -ide

    Formula of acid

    Name of acid



    And others

    Anion with suffix -ite

    Formula of acid

    Name of acid



    And others

    Anion with suffix -ate

    Formula of acid

    Name of acid



    And others

    1. For a memory test next meeting ,ask the students to memorize the anions with their correct symbolsand practice on their own by writing down what they have memorized(active/sensing)

    CYCLE TWO From “Assignment” to“Presentation” and on


    Give the students a memory test on anions. Mention the name of the ion, let the student write both the correct spelling of the name and the correct symbol of the anion mentioned for one point. (active/sensing)

    Ask the students to exchange their assignments and let them check the papers. Let the students encircle the wrong answer and write the correct one.(sensing/active/reflective)

    Call a student to write the formulas and names of the acids for anions with suffix –ide.(active/sensing/reflective)

    Call another student for the acids of anions with suffix –ite

    Call another student for the acids ofanions with suffix –ate.

    Step 4 FEEDBACK

    Ask the class to comment on the answer.(reflective/intuititve/global)

    Show again the flowchart in naming and writing the formula of acids to remind the students on the rules in naming acids. (visual/sensing/reflective/intuitive/sequential/global)

    Ask students for questions (reflective)

     CYCLE THREE (From Feedback to Lecture/Discussion)


    A, Introduction

    Ask the students the question: What if the formula do not start with H?

    Introduce some common bases, oxides,and salts with their uses. Show pictures. (reflective/visual)

    B. Lecture Proper

    Write formulas of salts,oxides, and bases and point out how they differ from each other.(verbal)

     Let the students go to pages 19&20 of the book “Naming....”.(active)

    -Point out that formula is derived and start with the cation followed with the anion ( page 19). Analogize this with a person first name and family name. (reflective/intuitive)

    -As a review, point out also that the charges or the ions are neutralized and show how the subscripts are formed and why in some, there is a need for parentheses (page 20).(reflective/intuitive/global)

    - Ask student to open their book“Naming...” on page 66 for Flowchart C (active)

    - Show also transparency of the flow chart. (visual/verbal)

    -Read and discuss the flowchart following the flow (visual/ verbal/ reflective/ 

    intuitive /global/sequential)


    Activity 1

    Let the students answer Practice Task No. 4 on page 25,Practice Task No. 5 on page 31and Practice Task No.7 on page 47.(sensing/ active/sequential/intuitive/global)

    Go around to see to it that students are answering the tasks.

    Attend to questions or needs of individual student who has concerns.(reflective)

    Take note with the concerns of the students and reserve them for Step 4 Feedback.

    Activity 2

    Ask the students to group themselves by three and let them share each other answers. Let them discuss with their group members their answers and decide the final answers to be submitted to the teacher.(Acive/reflective/intuitive/global/sequential)


    Call students to write answers on the board and let the students state the rules that were used to arriveto the answers.(active/reflective)

    Step 4. FEEDBACK

    Ask the class to comments on the answers written.(reflective/active)

    Tell the class your comments on the answers and the rules applied.

    Tell the students the concerns you gathered from the students’ activity.

    Ask students if they have questions(reflective)

    Step 5. ASSIGNMENT

    Tell the students to memorize the cations found in pages 3-4. (sensing/active)

     Back to CYCLE ONE ( Lecture/Discussion to Students’ activity and so on)


    1. Introduction

    Give a memory test on cations(active/sensing/reflective)

    Show the students a periodic table and ask them whether the cations and ions are 

    metals or non-metals.(visual/verbal/reflective)

    Point out to the students that when a metal reacts with a non-metal they form an 

    ionic compound.(intuitive/reflective)

    1. Lecture Proper

    Show again to the students Flowchart C and remind them that there are two types of inorganic compounds :Ionic compounds and covalent compounds.(visual/verbal/sensing/sequential)

    Ask the student what system of nomenclature is appropriately used for ionic compounds and what system of nomenclature is appropriately used for covalent compounds.(reflective/intuitive/global)

    Point out to the students that Greek Prefix system can be used for all types of compounds, however,following the textbook being used, “Chemistry for Engineering Students” by Brown and Holme, Greek Prefix System will be used appropriately for covalent compounds while Roman Numeral System for ionic compounds. (sensing/global)


    Activity 1

    Ask the students to answer Practice Task No. 8 on page 55 (active/reflective)

    Go around to see to it that students are answering the task.

     Attend to individual concerns. Take note of these concerns for Step 4 Feedback.

    Activity 2

    Ask the students to group by pair and let them share their answers with their partner. Give them time to discuss their answers and to decide which answers will be submitted to the teacher. (active/reflective/global)


    Ask students to write answers on the board and state the rules used for arriving the answer. (active)

    Step 4 FEEDBACK

    Ask students to comments on the answers on the board.(reflective/


    Tell the class your comments on the answers and rules applied.(verbal)

     CYCLE 4 (From Feedback to Students’ activity, and so on)

    Tell the students to prepare for a summative test next meeting. (verbal)

    Tell the student to study on their own the nomenclature of hydrate.(Let them refer to Flowchart C on page 64and Step 7 on page 57. (verbal)

    Tell them the coverage is all the topics discussed about naming and writing inorganic chemical formulas.(verbal)


     -Conduct a memory test for both cations and anions. 

     -Let the students answer the post-test in pages 69-70 or let them answer a 

     summative test that you prepared that covers the objectives written in this teaching plan.


    Brown&Holme (2007). Chemistry for Engineering Students. Singapore: Thomson Learning Asia.

    Tabinas, Camilo A (2006). Naming and Writing Simple Inorganic Chemical Formulas. Manila, 

    Phils.: C&E Publishing Inc.


    This article is an extract from my study entitled " Students' Learning Styles and Achievement in Chem 4 Departmental Examination for Enhanced Instructional Design" in which, for this portion that I used for this article, the valuable recommendations of Dr. Fajatin, Dr. Tabasa, and Dr. Locaylocay are acknowledged.


    Brown&Holme (2007). Chemistryfor Engineering Students. Singapore: Thomson LearningAsia.

    Felder, R.M. * Silverman, L.K.(1988). Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education.

           Engr. Education Journal78(7), 674-681(1988) Retrieved May 26,2012 from


    Grossman, P.&Loeb, S. (2010)Learning from Multiple Routes. Educational Leadership:

           67(8), 22-27.

    Tabinas, Camilo A (2006). Naming andWriting Simple Inorganic Chemical Formulas. Manila,

           Phils.: C&E Publishing Inc.

    ______________ (2012). Students’Learning Styles and Achievement in Chem 4 Departmental  

           Examinationfor Enhanced Instructional Design. Unpublished Doctor of Philosopyin Education

           major in Research and Evaluation. Dissertation.University of San Carlos Cebu City,