The tribal people and ethnic races throughout the world have developed their own culture, customs, cults, religious rites, taboos, totems, legends and myths, folk-fores and song, foods, medicinal practices, etc.
The intimate relationship between the human and plant world has evolved over generations of experience and practices. The tribal people and ethnic races throughout the world have developed their own culture, customs, cults, religious rites, taboos, totems, legends and myths, folk-fores and song, foods, medicinal practices, etc. The term "Ethnobotany” denotes the total relationship between man and vegetation. It is also considered as 'branch of economic botany, which deals with the role of plants in life and culture of aborigines and tribal people. The accumulated traditional knowledge of the early past has been preserved in to writings and practice of herbalists.The therapeutic efficacy of herbal medicines led to the evolution of Ayurveda (2500-600B.C) which literally means ‘science of life’. In the name of development, as people moved away from Mother Nature, they became more prone to diseases, decay and degeneration. Most of the present day diseases are life style diseases However there is again a revival of drugs being obtained from vegetable sources than at any time in history. Medicinal plants are now in a “come back” phase with the last two decades seeing people shifting their focus back to the forgotten traditional natural green remedies. There are 248 botanical drugs enlisted from Rigveda, which are mentioned mainly in Atharva veda and Rigvedas. The Samhita and Nighantus can also be used as valuable ethanobotanical resources. He also reviewed the Nighantus and other treatises and listed the plants mentioned there in. Medicinal plants are distributed across diverse habitats and landscape. Around 70 per cent of India’s medicinal plants are found in tropical areas. Some ethnobotanical work in India was done in botanical survey of India. The state of Rajasthan is situated between 23º3’ and 30º12’ N latitude and 69º30’ and 78º17’ E longitude . A major portion of western Rajasthan has desert soils and sandy plains. The average annual rainfall in the state is 525-675 mm, and the annual precipitation in different tracts of Rajasthan varies from 13 mm to 1766 mm. Rajasthan is rich in biodiversity which has a great economic value. This forest includes roughly 7 % of depleted and denuded forests. Biodiversity of Rajasthan is related with the Aravalli hills. Anogeissus pendula Edgew. forests cover more than half of the total forest area in the state. Recently, several studies have been conducted on Ayurvedic crude drugs for cure of digestive diseases, leprosy and skin diseases, malaria and paralysis, herbal cosmetics. Medicinal plants are distributed across diverse habitats and landscape. Around 70 per cent of India’s medicinal plants are found in tropical areas. Although less than 30 per cent of the medicinal plants are found in the temperate and alpine areas and higher altitudes they include species of high medicinal value. One third is tree and an equal portion includes shrubs, and the remaining one third are herbs, grasses and climbers. The major families which include medicinal plants are Liliaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Rubiaceae, Poaceae, Malvaceae etc. The plants used in ayurvedic drugs were mostly collected from the field conditions and this has resulted in considerable loss of biodiversity and endangering several plant species. Conservation of these valuable plant species has become imperative due to interest in herbal medicines for healthcare all across the world. Around 80% population of India live in rural areas; utilize traditional medicinal system, which are based on largely Ayurvedic medicine. Studies were conducted in different regions of Rajasthan and other tribal areas. Data was also collected from the different areas out of Rajasthan specially rural and tribal areas where of herbal drugs is most common and other ethnobotanical practices are under going. The people of Rajasthan can be broadly divided into ; those living into extreme wheather condition as in Western Rajasthan and others in milder climate. Rajasthan has rich biodiversity consisting of a large number of plants, some of which are used for their medicinal value. A large number of medicinally important tree species are present on Aravalli hill range and other areas including less hospitable North–West Rajasthan. An attempt was made to characterize tree species of the region and detailed pharmacognostical studies on some selected plants were conducted. Ethnobotany is usually defined as anthropological approach to botany. Several methods of ethnobotanical research relevant to medicinal plants like archaeological search in literature, herbaria and the field studies were used in the present investigations. The relationship between people of primitive societies and their plant environment was studied. Though ethnobotany provides several approaches in plant researches, here only the resources which help in mainly in medicinal research were considered Flowers are profusely mentioned in folk and religious songs. Certain trees like Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), Palas (Butea monosperma O.Kuntze.), Sandal wood (Santalum album Linn.) find a prominent place in songs sung in religious rites. Sandal (Santalum album Linn.), turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valeton.) and other plants are used in the formation of a paste for improving the complexion of a bride. Brides use sandal (Santalum album Linn.), rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) to perfume their body. Acacia concinna DC. Vern. (Shikakai) pods are blended into shampoo and hair cleanser with Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn Vern. Ritha to promote hair growth and to stop hair splitting, falling and dandruff. Khejiri ( Prosopis cineraria Linn.) is most common tree in the Thar desert of Rajasthan. Recent researches indicate that it brings up moisture and nutrients from underground soil for crop grown above. Charcol of Acacia catechu Willd. (Katha)is used in iron smelting. The stem of Abrus precatorius Linn.(Chrimiti)is used by jewellers to increase adhesion while soldring delicate ornament. Cooling screens in hot weather are prepared from Alhagi pseudo-alhagi Linn.(Javasa) The following tree species also found in the sandy areas – Prosopis cineraria, Balanites aegyptiaca, Zizyphus mauritiana, Tecomella undulata, Ailanthus excelsa, Acacia nilotica var. indica and Holoptelea integrifolia. Some of the species which occur exclusively in the rainy season e.g. Cleome gynandra, Sesbania sesban, Tribulus terrestris, Sesamum indicum, Mollugo cerviana, Trianthema Portulacastrum, Aristida spp. Eleusine spp. and Cynodon dactylon. A large majority to the trees in the area are restricted to the hills. Sterculia urens, Commiphora wightii, Anogeissus pendula, Boswellia serrata, Lannea coromandelica, Rhus mysorensis, Adina cordifolia, Diospyros melanoxylon, Wrightia tinctoria, Cassia fistula,. Aegle marmelos. Cordia gharaf and Ficus racemosa occur naturally on the hills but have probably been introduced in other areas. Some other species like Grewia tenax, Butea monosperma and Acacia senegal are restricted to the bases of the hills. About 500 tribal communities are representing 7.76 per cent of the total population of the country. It is spread over 19 per cent of the total area of the nation. The total tribal population of Rajasthan state is 5,474,881 which is 12.44 per cent of the total population of this state. The tribals of Rajasthan constitute 8.07% of the total population of tribals in India. Several tribes inhabited in the state of Rajasthan, namely – ‘Bhil’, ‘Bhil-Meena’, ‘Garasia’ ‘Damor’, ‘Dhanaka’,, ‘Kathodia’, ‘Meena’, ‘Patelia’ and ‘Saharia’. Besides these, there are some nomadic, semi-nomadic tribes and denotified communities also. Nomadic tribes are ‘Banjara’, ‘Gadia–Lohar’ and ‘Kalbelia’, whereas semi-nomadic tribes are ‘Rebari’, ‘Jogi’ and ‘Masani’. ‘Bori’, ‘Kanjer’, ‘Sansi’, ‘Bhat’ are included in denotified communities. Morphological studies were conducted on some important medicinal plants. They included Aloe ferox, Tinospora cordifolia, Aloe vera, Tinospora crispa, Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum basilicum, Pergularia daemia. Anatomical studies were conducted on Tinospora cordifolia, Aloe vera, and Calotropis Procera (Ait.) R.Br.. Pharmacognosy includes the study of the proper horticulture, harvesting and uses of the raw medicinals found in nature. Its scope includes the identification or authentication of crude drugs (using macroscopical, microscopical, radiological or chemical methods), and their bio-pharmacological and clinical evaluations. Pharmacognostical studies were conducted on some selected plants which included Aloe vera, Acacia nilotica Linn, Cassia senna, Tinospora cordifolia (Willid.) Miers, Ricinus communis, Ocimum sanctum Linn. Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb). The plants of the family Euphorbiaceae are used in folk medicines to cure skin diseases, gonorrhea, migraines, intestinal parasites, and warts. The polycyclic diterpenoids with tigliane (phorbol esters), ingenane (ingenol esters), jatrophane, and lathyrane skeletons are among the most studied diterpenoids isolated from Euphorbia plants. These diterpenoids are biologically active in diverse ways; they have been found to be skin-irritants, tumor-promoters, anti-cancer agents, and recently, agents for overcoming multidrug-resistance (anti-MDR) Several of the related myrsinane diterpenoids have been isolated from Euphorbia species in China, Turkey, and Iran. Thus the present investigations have revealed the importance of ethnobotanical and pharmacognostical studies for developing suitable medicines for the masses which will not have side effects of allopathic medicine. References: Agarwal, Shashi Rani, 1997. Trees, flowers, fruits in Indian folk songs, folk proverbs and folk tales in S.K. Jain (Ed.), 1997. Contribution to Indian Ethanobotany, Scientific Publication, India. Ambasta, S.P. 1986. The useful plants of India. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. Ambasta, S.P., Kamala Ramachandran, K.Kashyapa and Ramesh Chand 1993. The useful plants of India. CSIR, New Delhi. Anonymous, 1952. The wealth of India, Vol. III (D-E), CSIR New Delhi. Anonymous, 1956. The wealth of India (A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industry). CSIR. New Delhi. Anonymous, 1963. Sushruta Samhita Vol. II. Choukhambha Sanskrit Series Office Varanasi 222-761. Anonymous, 1986. The useful Plants of India, CSIR, New Delhi, Pg. 419, 450, 550, 554, 621. Apparananthan T. and V. Chelladurai, 1986. Glimpses on folk medicines of Dharampuri Forest Division, Tamil Nadu. Ancient Science Life 5 (3) : 182-185. Audichya, K. C., K.V. Billore, T.H. Joseph and D.D. Chaturvedi, 1983. Role of Indigenous Folk remedies for certain acute illness in primary health care, Nagarjun 26 (9) : 199-201. Bewley, J.D. 1980. Secondary dormancy (skotodormancy) in seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa ev. Grand Rapids) and its release by light gibberellic acid and benzyladenine. Physiol. Plant. Vol. 49 (3) Pg. 277-280. Bhandari, M.M., 1978. Floras of the Indian Desert. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur. 1-466. Bhatia, K.N. and Parashar, K.N., 1996. Plant Physiology, Trueman Book Company, Jalandhar – 144008. Bhattacharyya, U.C. 1997. Flora of West Bengal. Vol. I B.S.I. Calcutta. Black, M. 1981. The role of endogenous hormones in germination and dormancy. In “Control mechanism in seed germination”. Mayer, A.M. (ed) Pg. 181-192. Chaudhary, Mamta and A.Kumar, 2001. Ayurvedic Crude Drugs for Cure Drugs for Cure of diseases of the Digestive System. International Journal of Mendel Vol. 18(1-2) Pg.27-28. Chopra, R.N., S.L. Nayar and I.C. Chopra, 1958. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. CSIR. New Delhi. Chopra R.N., Chopra I.C., Handa K.L. and Kapur L.D., 1982. Indigenous drugs of India 308. Academic Publishers, Dutta lane, Calcutta. Datta, S.C. and B. Mukherjee, 1952. Pharmacognosy of Indian Leaves drugs. Indian Press, Calcutta. Deka, D. and Das, N., 1978. Studies on the effect of pretreating peaseeds with GA3 on germination seedling growth and chlorophyll content. Proc. Pl. ant. Grow. Reg. Pp. 272-276 Faulks, P.J., 1958. An Introduction to Ethanobotany, Moredale Publication. London. Goel A.K., A.K. Saboo, and V. Mudgal, 1984. A Contribution to the Ethanobotany of Santal Paragana. Bot. Surv. India Howrah. Gupta, R., Shrivastav, V.K., and Maheshwari, M.L., 1977. Sennosides content in senna leaves and pods as influenced by growth and nutrition. Indian J. Pharm. Vol. 39 (5) : 109-111. Gupta, Ritu and A. Kumar, 2000. Ayurvedic Crude Drugs as Potential (Cure of Diabetes. International Journal Mendel Vol. 17 (3-4) Pg.127-128. Gupta, Ritu and A. Kumar, 2002a. Searching for anti-diabetic agents among Ayurvedic crude drugs. Int. J. Mendal. 19 : 9-10. Gupta, Ritu and A. Kumar, 2002b. Ethnobotanical and Ayurvedic applications of Methi-Trigonella foenum-graceum Linn. Int. J. Mendal. 19(3) : 124. Hajra, P.K. and P.C. Chakroborty, 1981. A Survey of Wild Plants sold in Lal Market of Gangtok. Indian J. Forestry 4 (3) : 217-220. Hajra, P.K., R.R. Rao, D.K. Singh and B.P. Uniyal, 1995. Flora of India. Vol. XII and XIII, B.S.I. Calcutta. Jain, S.K., 1958. Kavya Men Padap Pushp, M.P. Prakashan Samiti, Bhopal. Jain, S.K., 1963. Studies in Indian ethnobotany . Origin and utility of some vernacular plant name. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India 33:525-530. Jain, S.K., 1965. Medicinal plantlore of tribles of Baster. Eco.Bot.19 Jain, S.K. and J.N. De, 1966. Observations on ethanobotany of Purulia District, West Bengal. Bull. Bot. Sur. India 8 : 237-251. Jain, S.K. 1997. Contribution to Indian ethanobotany, 3rd Revised Edition Scietific Publishers, India. Jain, S.K. and C.R. Tarafdar, 1963. Native plants remedies for Snakebite among Adivasis of Central India. Med. J. 57 (12) : 307-309. Jain, S.K. and Defellips, 1991. Medicinal plants of India. Vol. II, Reference Publication, India. Jain, S.P. and S.C. Singh, 1997. Ethanomedicinal Survey of Ambikapur district, Madhya Pradesh in S.K. Jain (ed) 1997. Contribution to Indian Ethanobotany III Revised Edition, Scientific Publishers, India. Jain, S.K. and S.K. Borthakur, 1980. Ethanobotany of the Mikirs of India Econ. Botany 3 (V) ; 264 - 272. Jain, V. and V.K. Gupta, 2000. Effect of foliar spray of boric acid on nodule number, shoot and root length. International Journal of Mendel. 17 : 31-32. Jain, V. and V.K. Gupta, 2001. Effect of foliar spray of diammonium phosphate on nodule number, shoot and root length. International Journal of Mendel. 18 (3) Pg. 97. Johari, S and A. Kumar, 1992. Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and potassium on growth and bio crude yield of Euphorbia anti-syphilitica. Annals of Arid Zone. 31 : 313-314. Johari, S and A. Kumar, 1994(a). Influence of growth regulators on luomass and hydrocarbon yield from Euphorbia anti-syphilitica (Zuce). J. Phytol . Res. 7: 65-68. Johari, S and A. Kumar, 1994(b). Effect of organic amendmenls on salinity under semi arid condition of Rajasthan. J. Env. Sci. and health 25 : 94-99. Kapoor, B.M. and C.K. Atal, 1982. Cultivation of Senna in India. In and cultivation and utilization of Medicinal plants (Atal C.K. and Kapur B.M., Ed) Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu. pp 391-405. Kaushik, Purshottam, 1988. Indigenous medicinal plants (including microbes and fungi), Today and Tommorow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, India. Khan, A.A. 1977. “The Physiology and Biochemistry of seed dormancy and germination”. Amsterdam, The netherland. Kirtikar, K.R. and B.D. Basu, 1918. Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. I-IV, Allahabad India (Rep. ed. 1981). Kirtikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D., 1935. Indian Medicinal Plants , 4 Vols. L.M. Basu , Allahabad. Kojima, H. and Oota, Y. 1980. Promoyion by gibberellin of lettuce seed germination as a function of presoaking period. Plant Cell Physiol. 21 (4) : Pg : 561-569. Kotia A. and A. Kumar 2000. Biomass characterization during the process of wasteland colonization in semi arid condition. In Proc. Ist World conference on Biomass for energy and industry, (S.Kyrisis et al, eds.) Spain James and James. Science Publishers Ltd. U.K. Pg. 311-314. Kotia A. and A. Kumar 2001. Some common weeds of medicinal value of Rajasthan. International Journal of Mendal Vol.-18: 17-18. Loper, G.M. and Waller, G.D. 1982. GA3 increased bolting and seed production in late-planted onions. Hort. Science 17 (6): 922-923. Maheshwari J.K. and J.P. Singh, 1984. Contribution to the ethanobotany of Bhoxa tribe of Bijnor and Pauri Garhwal district, Uttar Pradesh J. Econ. Bot. 5(2) : 251-259. Maheshwari, J.K., P.M. Painuli and R.P. Dwivedi, 1997. Notes on Ethanobotany of the Oraon and Korwa tribes of Madhya Pradesh in S.K. Jain (ed) 1997, Contribution to Indian ethanobotany, Scientific publishers, India. Matiyani, 1957. Naintal Ki Lok Kathayen, Atam Ram and sons , New Delhi. Mishra, Ajanta and A. Kumar, 2000a. Ayurvedic Medicinal plants for Skin disease. International Journal of Mendal Vol.-17(3-4) Pg. 91-92. Mishra, Ajanta and A. Kumar, 2000b. Medicinaly important trees of Rajasthan. International Journal of Mendal Vol.-18 : 37-38. Mishra, Ajanta and A. Kumar, 2001. Studies on Ayurvedic Crude Drugs for the cure urinary tract Stones. International Journal of Mendal Vol.-18(1-2) Pg. 41-42. Mitra, R. and S.K. Jain, 1991. Medicinal plant Research in India. An overview Ethanobotany 3 : 65 – 77. Myers, J. 1962. Laboratory culture. In : Physiology and Biochemistry of Algae (ed. R.A. Lewin). Academic Press, New York and London, 603-615. Nandkarni, K.M., 1954. Indian Materia Medica. Popular Book Depot, Bombay. 45-1294. Negi, K.S., J.K. Tiwari and R.D. Gaur. 1985. Eco. Importance of some common trees in Garhwal Himalayas. An Ethanobotanical study Indian J. for 8: 276-289. Parashar, R.K. 1965. Sharangdhar Samhita Commentary, Baidya Nath Prakashan, Nagpur 238-258. Pareek, S.K., Srivastava V.K., Maheshwari, M.L., Sarabjit Singh and Gupta, R. 1981. Grow senna in North India. Indian Fmg., Vol.24 (9) Pg.15-17. Pareek S.K., Srivastava, V.K., Mandal, S., Maheshwari, M.L. and Gupta, R. 1983. Investigation in agronomic parameters of senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl) as grown in North Western India. Internal J. Trop. Agriculture 1 (2) : 139-144. Pareek S.K., Srivastava, V.K., Mandal, S., Maheshwari, M.L. and Gupta, R. 1984. Accumulation of anthrancene compounds and yield of senna under different picking schedule, South Indian Horti.Vol.31 (3) 219-222. Pawar, P.R., Joshi, A.T. and Mahakal, K.G. 1977. Effect of seed treatment with plant prowth regulators on germination, growth and yield of okara (Abelmoschus escalentus L.) J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ. 2 (1): 26-29. Raghunathan, K. and Roma Mitra, 1982. Pharmacognosy of Indigenous Drugs, (Central council for research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi Vol. II: 1-129. Roy, G.P. and K.K. Chaturvedi, 1987. Less known medicinal uses of rare and endangered plants of Alujh-Marh reserve area. Bastar M.P. J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 9 (2), 325-328. Sanghi, Sapna and A. Kumar, 2000. Characterization of some of the Medicinal plants of family Leguminasae used in Ayurvedic system of Medicine. International Journal of Mendel Vol. 17(3-4) . Pg 109-110 . Sanghi, Sapna and A. Kumar, 2001. Characterization of some of the Ayurvedic Medicinal plants of family Fabaceae used for rheumatic disease. International Journal of Mendel Vol. 18(3) . Pg 99-100 . Sanghi, Sapna and A. Kumar, 2002. Characterization of some of the Ayurvedic Medicinal plants of family Fabaceae used for Leprosy . International Journal of Mendel Vol. 19(1-2) . Pg 13-14. Sanskrityayan , R.D. and Upadhyaya K.D. Ed. 1960. Hindi Sahitya ke Brihat Itihas, Pt-16, Hindi ka Lok Sahitya, Nagri Pracharini Sabha, Varanasi. Sarma, C.M. and Borooah, A., 1986. Interaction between gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on the germination of positively photoblastic lettuce seeds. Indian Agricultureist 30 (2): 165-169. Sarma, C., 1982. Effects of hormonal treatments during seed development on the vigour of sub-sequently formed seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) T 163 and Vicia feba. Indian J. PI. Physiol. 25 (4) : 377-381. Saxena, A.P. and K.M. Vyas, 1981. Ethanobotanical records on infectious diseases from tribals of Banda districts. J. Eco. Tax. Bot. 2: 191-194. Saxena, A.P. and K.M. Vyas, 1983. Ethanobotany of Dhasan valley. J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 4 : 121-128. Saxena H.O., M Brahman and P.K. Dutta, 1981. Ethanobotanical studies in Orissa In Jain S.K. Ed., Glimpses of Indian Ethanobotany , 232-244. Schultes, R.E. 1962. The role of ethanobotanist in search for new medicinal plants. Lloydia 25 (4) : 257-266. Shah, R.R., Amin, D.R., Patel, R.B. and K.C. Dalal, 1979. Yield performance and sennoside contents of senna leaflets in relation to age, days to stripping . Indian J.Pharm. Sci. Vol. 41 (4) Pg. 157-160. Sharma B.D., N.P. Balakrishnan, R.R.Rao and P.K.Hajra 1993. Flora of India, Vol. I B.S.I. Calcutta. Sharma, B.D. and S.K.Malhotra, 1984. A contribution to the ethanobotany of tribal areas of Maharashtra J. Econ. Tax. Bot.–5, 533-537. Sharma, D.C., 1968-69. Vedon Main Dravyagun Shastra, Gujrat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. Sharma, L.K. and A. Kumar, 2000. Searching for anti cancer drugs in traditional medicines. International Journal of Mendal Vol.-17(3-4) Pg. 77-78. Sharma P., 1979. Basic principles of Ayurveda Concepts, Publishing Company, New Delhi, Page – 627. Sharma, Santosh and A. Kumar, 2001. Ayurvedic plants for cure of Hepatic diseases. International Journal of Mendal Vol.-18(1-2) Pg. 13-14. Sharma, Santosh and A. Kumar, 2002 Ethnobotanical studies on medicinal plants : Chitrak. International Journal of Mendal Vol.-19 Pg. 129. Shivani and A. Kumar, 2000. Ayurvedic Medicinal plants for Skin disease. International Journal of Mendal Vol. (3-4) : 105-106. Shivani and A. Kumar, 2002. Some important medicinal plants of family Solanaceae used in Ayurvedic system of medicines. International Journal of Mendal Vol. 19 : 97-98. Singh, H., 1988. Ethanobiological treatment of piles by Bhoxas of U.P. Ancient Sci. Life 8 (2) : 167-170. Singh V. and R.P. Pandey, 1980. Medicinal plantlore of tribals of East Rajasthan . J. Econ. Tax. Bot. (1) : 137-147. Singh V. and R.P. Pandey, 1988. Ethnobotany of Rajasthan. India Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India.1-58. Sivarajan, V.V. and Indira Balachandran, 1994. Ayurvedic Drugs and their plant Sources, Calcutta. Srivastava, V.K., Gupta, R. and Maheshwari, M.L., 1980. Photocontrol of anthracene compounds formation in senna leaves. Indian J. Experimental Biol., Vol. 18(11) Pg.1318-1319. Srivastava, V.K., Maheshwari, M.L. and Mandal, S. 1983. Investigation on chemical methods of assay of sennosides in senna . Intern. J. Tropical Agri. Vol. 1 (3) : 231-235. Srivastava, V.K., Maheshwari, M.L., Singh, S. and Gupta, R., 1982. Dynamics and localization of anthracene compounds during the growth of senna. Herba Hungarica Vol. 20 (1-2) : 75-81. Tarafdar, C.R., 1983. Ethanogynaecology in relation to plant-II. Plant used in abortions. J. Econ. Tax. Bot., 4 : 483-489. Tarafdar C.R. and Rai H.N. Chaudhari 1997. Less known medicinal uses of plants among the tribals of Hazaribagh district of of Bihar in S.K.Jain (Ed.) Contribution to Indian Ethanobotabny, Scientific Publisher, India. Tripathi R., Vidyarthi N. and Tripathi, U.S. 1978. Ayurvedyea Itihaas-Sachitra Ayurveda, May : 280-284. Upadhyaya, K.D., 1960. Bhojpuri Lok Sahitya ka Adhyayan, Hindi Pracharak Pustakalya, Varanasi . Upadhyaya, V.P. 1985. Plants as cosmetics international seminar on medicinal plants, Feb., Mungpoo, Govt. of West Bengal. Utheib, N.A., Abbas, M.F. and Sammara, A.S. AI., 1981. The effect of some growth regulators and thiourea on dormancy and subsequent growth of the potato in Basrah. J. Indian Potato Assoc. 8(3): 134-141. Verma, V. 1995. A textbook of plant physiology, Embay Publication, Delhi. Vilela, A.E. and D.A. Ravetta., 2000. The effect of radiation on seedling growth and physiology in four species of Prosopis L. (Mimosaceae) J. Arid Env. 44 : 415-423. Wahab Abded, A.M. and Abd Alla, H.H., 1996. Effect of different rates of N-fertilizers on nodulation, nodule activities and growth of to field grown CVS of Soyabean. Fertilizers Research Vol.43 (1-3) : 37-41. Warrier, P.K., V.K.P. Nambiar and C, Ramankutty, 1993. Indian medicinal plants Vol.I Orient Longman, Madras. Yadav, Anita and A. Kumar, 2001. Studies on anti-malarial Drugs used in Ayurvedic System. International Journal of Mendel Vol. 18 (1-2) : 29-30.