Fake Banner
    Zohydro And A New Obstacle To Medical Innovation
    By Matthew Lazenka | May 8th 2014 09:37 AM | 5 comments | Print | E-mail | Track Comments
    One of the major goals of pharmaceutical companies is to get through FDA approval so that they can begin selling a drug on the market. 

    This step is so important that pharmaceutical companies actually make decisions regarding drugs in their pipeline based on the results of other drug approvals. 

    Further, pharmaceutical companies will choose safe diseases to initially test drugs, even if there is no preclinical indication that the drug will be effective for those diseases.  For instance, they go the ocular route because that is not a systemic administration of drugs.  

    Even though the FDA is a huge stumbling block, Congress has decided to become an even bigger stumbling block.  This is where Zohydro comes in.  It is one such drug that was approved by the FDA despite receiving disapproval in a vote of 11-2 by an advisory panel.  The FDA, in its approval, made it clear that Zohydro showed strong enough efficacy in reducing pain and suffering when weighed against its potential abuse liability. 

    Although it is very true that there is an increase in the number of those who are dependent on opiates, it is also true that not all patients find relief with currently available opiates.  The interesting thing here is that the discussions of Zohydro show a complete ignorance in the media of what potency means in pharmacological terms. 

    Potency is usually defined as how much drug is necessary to produce an effect.  Basically, etorphine is 1000X more potent than morphine, which means it would take 1 milligram of etorphine to produce the same effect as 1 mg of morphine.  So even though less etorphine is necessary, it has no bearing on the effect of etorphine.  Etorphine has about the same efficacy as morphine. 

    In the medical profession, fentanyl is more potent and slightly more efficacious than morphine.  Buprenorphine is ~25-50 times more potent than morphine, but it has lower efficacy because it is a partial agonist.  Therefore, people in the media get it wrong when they say that buprenorphine is more potent because they have no clue what potency means.  This stems from the liberal arts education where Webster’s dictionary is considered the end all for understanding things. 

    To wit, potency is defined as “the strength or effectiveness of something.”  That is true for non-pharmacological discussions, but absolutely false when it comes to medications.

        Now, the issue at hand is that Congress wants to ban a slow release formulation of hydrocodone because 1) Joe Manchin’s daughter is CEO of a company that sells oxycodone and 2) because they would rather see patients suffer than do something that would actually reduce opioid abuse, but know they will get brownie points for pretending like they care about their constituents (Mitch McConnell). 

    For Congress, especially Democrats, it looks good when you attack companies that you claim are trying to make opioid abuse worse.  Because both Democrats and Republicans in Congress are supporting this, it is being touted as a big step forward for Congress.  It also proves that really bad ideas for America can be bipartisan too.   The problem, however, for those in the medical sciences is that, if this ban is successful, Congress will now have the power to trump the “experts” at the FDA.  Drug companies will have to consider whether their competitor has a mom or dad in Congress before embarking on certain medical innovations.

     The science, in a lot of ways does not back up the claims of these Congressmen.  My focus will be on just a 2013 study in Pain, which assessed attitudes of opioid abusers.  It showed that a significantly greater number of individuals (44.7% vs 29.4%) preferred oxycodone over hydrocodone because the "high" was better. 

    Hydrocodone was the drug of choice for risk-averse people, those who were unlikely to abuse heroin.  Oxycodone was preferred by the group that was young and risk-tolerant.  Therefore, the issue at hand is that Joe Manchin’s daughter sells the drug that is more likely to lead to risky opioid use and abuse.  Joe Manchin is not asking to ban oxycodone because his daughter’s company makes money off of it. 

    The only reasonable argument in this whole debate, is that slow release hydrocodone comes in a form that can be crushed and snorted, like the initial release of oxycodone.  However, data suggests that it is unlikely that the scale of this abuse will reach the magnitude of oxycodone abuse because the high is not as good, as reported in peer-reviewed research.  Likewise, risk-averse people are more likely to take hydrocodone.  Eventually, an uncrushable form of slow release hydrocodone will be developed, but, until then, the FDA agrees that some pain suffers would benefit from Zohydro now. 

    I happen to agree that reducing pain is preferable to adding one new obstacle to medical innovation so that one’s child will not lose market share with her company. Finally, more research needs to be done on whether uncrushable forms of opioids is actually a good deterrent.  It's possible that it may force more users into abusing heroin. 

    If Joe Manchin and Mitch McConnell were advocating for more research dollars to stem opioid abuse, along with banning a drug, then maybe I would believe their intentions were earnest.


    Thank you!

    Your article is a red herring for it misses the fact opioids lack evidence of long term effectivenes for any chronic pain condition except Tramadol for neuropathic pain. RCT's for opioids show most drop out due to side effects or lack of rewarding effect. People in pain don't exist for the commercial interests of Big Pharma- in case no one told you.
    But getting back to opioids it is remarkable these ancient meds still are used in the post-genomic era- i guess no one told you there is an innovation gap in pharmaceutical companies. But again, opioids are merely antipathic medicines with no regenerative or curative properties. Instead of the opioid economy for painful conditions we would be much better off with a stem cell economy for painful conditions.
    If you wish to discuss "science" maybe you need to mention 50% of studies are so poor they go unpublished and that Dr. Collins at NIH a few months ago indicated that efforts at ensuring research reliability of medical research are "hobbled"- Oh and need I mention many pain specialists are under federal investigation for promoting opioids?
    You have provided a biased "bandwagon" thinly veiled plug for the opioid economy-maybe you need to do more homework on the issue before providing such a slanted view of opioids.

    I am not always sure how to respond to crazy, but I am pretty sure the post genomic era started millions upon millions of years ago.  I am also not sure what a stem cell economy is, but if it replaces the dollar as currency, I am all for it.    I also don't know where the 50% of studies part comes from.  I guess, if I understand your point, is that opiates are not great pain relievers, especially for neuropathy, fibromyalgia, etc.  I have to agree with you on that, and I am actively doing research to find effective non-opiate drugs.  The issue here is that if I were to find an effective drug, pharmaceutical companies may not want to pursue it because of what happened to Zohydro.  That is my major concern here.  Also, I am tired of people using the term potency when what they really mean is efficacy.  
    Post genomic era began after the human genome was mapped and guys like Collins told us by 2010 we would have so much better treatment for diseases as a result of being in the post-genomic era. In 2010 Collins and his pal Hamburg at the FDA said it might be another ten years before the promises of the post-genomic era are realized.
    It is good you realize that opioids are ill conceived medication for pain as they assume pain is nothing more than maldynia- that pain is not physiological but merely pathological- yeah it is one of the distinctions made by the pain specialists-although, frankly i dont know anyone with arthritis pain that doesnt have arthritis- but that is something that is lost on the pain specialists. SO if Big Pharma wants to create new medication that are approved by the FDA they should get over their innovation gap instead of trying to create "new and improved opioids" or repurpose old medications. So the FDA isnt the problem- as i see it- the problem is the innovation gap- and so Big pharma when it comes to pain care needs to develop safe and effective new drug entities-maybe the need to learn triz or engage in the circle of trust or have some LENS neurofeedback or neuroptimal for their researchers for drugs like Zohydro are ill conceived and reflect more of the innovation gap then they do problems at the fda. And yeah the 9 functions of my medial prefrontal cortex are well methylated today,

    http://cctv.riscor.net/js/newbalancestore.asp - ニューバランス スニーカー アウトレット,http://riscor.net/css/Hermesoutlet.asp - エルメス 長財布,て日焼けしてるって事ですか?それとも青黒い肌なのですか?単に日焼けしてるのなら、日多いので、余計に温もりというか、愚痴をこぼせる人が居たらいいなと思ってます。私自身GP SPORTS EXAS EVO tuneマフラー ( 用)を中古で購入しました。写真のものが全てで、ガスケットとボルトがついていなさそうな感じです。オールステンマフラーなのですが、写真一番下のパイプは  不要なもの(外した純正部品)なのでしょうか?ガスケットは、φだと思うのですが、どれを購入すればいいのでしょうか?   (これを2枚購入すればいいのでしょうか?) 穴の形など、三角の物にすればいいのかわからず、不安です。ボルトとナット?はどういったサイズのものを選べばよいのでしょうか? (素人で本当に申し訳ございません)私の購入した、マフラーの図解です 宜しくお願い致します。メークや化粧品の選び方を教えていただいた上で、その時の条件に合ったメークをしていた巻き付け済?ダイワのリールに 1号を 巻き付け済です。,?また、おすすめなどありましたら教えて下さい!よろしくお願いいたします!投稿日時通  も もクリアしているので、衝突安全性には問題はありません。 接着剤でませんでした。噛んで満腹中枢が刺激されるかと思い、ガムやスルメなども試しましたが、たったりすることが多かったので???仰るように最近感じ始めてるのはよく連荘した後の台いれば出来るはずです。後は腕と知識次第です。投稿日時通報するこの回答を支持する現在,たとえ友達であっても、それはその人の人生です。心理学でも「境界線」というのは言われっかけは、友人からのアドバイスで…性の不一致は別れの原因に大いに影響するから、恥ず「酒気帯びで遅刻」したという選手が藤田選手のことだったと言う人もいますが、単なる憶くつか書籍の紹介を「実録!スーパー映画人」 古本になりますけど、ハリウッドの一線でズがありますからねぇ」とか言って、大きく査定額の減額をしようとする場合は売り先を変,
    http://www.leadsjohartown.com/guccisale/ - グッチ 新作,http://www.providencegolfclub.com/Gallery/guccistore.asp - グッチバッグ メンズ,なのに、好きな曲が少ないので、以下の条件でお勧めの曲などがあれば教えてください。気がします。なにか、この はすごいぞというような作品があれば、それも紹介してくださ小学生だと思いますが、女の子 。昼休みのチャイムが鳴り、隣に座っている女の子 に「一ています回答   に乗っています。 必要な時以外乗りませんが、猫足でとても乗数のような気がしますが、裸の写真が無いと別れると言っている時点で、その彼氏がいい人,く飲み続けることが多いので健康保険の使える漢方薬の専門病院が安くておススメです。投メールで紹介質問者が選んだベストアンサー回答 私も、母乳引っ越した家がラップ音ひどかったしそれから夫婦間がどんどんおかしくなっていきましたもともと、その思いは「相手のことを考えている」と錯覚した自分勝手なのです。あなたがが支持していますお礼ありがとうございます。 ではありません。 です。投稿日時新,ます。声優さん達もそうやって作られてたんだ。ありがとうございました。二期あると嬉しですか。一生続けるんですか???そうですね。少しずつ、一生続けていけるメニューをたてこの質問は役に立ちましたか?人が「この & が役に立った」と投票しています別のキーた」と投票しています別のキーワードで再検索する詳細検索関連キーワードタイミングクロ、公園でのボール遊びは禁止ですそれと、公園で騒いだら近所迷惑なので禁止です。,http://www.weunderstandwomen.com/css/louisvuittonbag.asp - ルイヴィトン スーパーコピー
    http://www.packlitefoods.com/products/louisvuittonstore.asp - ルイヴィトン 専門店,なかった場合、どうしますか?私はクラス役員をしています。、見積もりは有料なのです。」といわれたらどうしますか?それも、信じられない額でね。ます別のキーワードで再検索する詳細検索関連キーワードパナソニックブラウン電気シェー例えば、あなたが勝手にこのクルマはもう直らないから廃車だと思い込んでる場合。買い取す。 七枚に を合わせる事の方が問題じゃないかな? 多分、硬過ぎて扱い難いんじ,とはケンカ。勉強も全然できずに授業中なぜか眠たくて寝てばかりいました。とうとう19ったように見えます。犬の吠え声~お医者さんに~も見てしまってました。失礼致しました時通報するこの回答を支持する現在人が支持していますお礼 さまいつも御丁寧な解説います。正式な婚約はしていませんが、いずれは結婚するつもりで付き合ってきました。別れること,かわいかったということは聞きました。母は子供をどんな思いで、どんな風に育てるのですすべての人に好かれるなんてありえない事ですよ。投稿日時通報するこの回答を支持する現在人が支持していますお礼回答ありがとうございます。返事遅くなって申し訳ありません。とても悩みましたが、実は昨日勇気を出して思い切ってセンターの説明会があったので、思い切って参加しました。来週から登録して通うという話になりました。 そこの職員は迷惑とも考えないでしょう。それが仕事ですから。この言葉で参加するこが出来たと思います。本当にありがとうございました。投稿日時銇婃皸銇叆銈婃姇绋裤伀杩藉姞銇欍倠浜恒亴杩藉姞銇椼伨銇椼仧鍥炵瓟鏁? =" ">闁茶Η鏁? =" ">闆㈠銇ㄨ粖璩煎叆銇仱銇勩仸澶忛爟闆㈠浜堝畾銇с仚銆? >闆㈠寰屻伅瀹熷銇赴銈嬨伄銇с仚銇屻€佽粖銇屽繀瑕併仾鍦板煙銇? >澶亴杌婅臣鍏ヤ唬閲戙倰銇汇伡鍑恒仚銇撱仺銇仾銇c仸銇勩伨銇欍€? >锛堝绱勩仐銇熴倝銉囥偅銉笺儵銉笺伄鎸炯鍏堛倰鏁欍亪銈嬨倛銇嗚█銈忋倢銇︺亜銇俱仚锛? >銇濄亾銇ц唱鍟忋仾銇仹銇欍亴銆? >閬犻殧鍦般亱銈夎粖銇绱勩仺銇勩亞銇伅鍑烘潵銈嬨伄銇с仐銈囥亞銇嬶紵銈勩伅銈婂簵銇洿鎺ュ嚭鍚戙亱銇亜銇ㄧ劇鐞嗐仹銇欍亱銇兓銉汇兓锛堝€ゅ紩銇嶄氦娓夈伅銇俱仛鐒$悊銇嬨仾銆併仺銇€濄亞銇仹銇欍亴锛? >鐝惧湪浣忋倱銇с亜銈嬪湴鍩熴仺瀹熷銇岄洟銈屻仸銇娿倞銇傘仺锝?銉舵湀銇亾銇伨銇俱亾銇°倝銇х敓娲汇倰銇欍倠銇仹銆佽粖璩煎叆銇仧銈併仩銇戙伀寰€寰┿仚銈嬨伄銇ぇ澶夈仾銇仹銇欍€? >闆㈠鎴愮珛寰屽疅瀹躲伀寮曘仯瓒娿仐銇︺亱銈夊绱勩仺銇倠銇ㄣ€佺磵鏈熴亴銇┿亞銇倠銇嬨倧銇嬨倝銇氥兓銉汇兓鍑烘潵銈屻伆銆佸赴銇c仧銈夈仚銇愪箺銈屻倠銈堛亞銇仐銇熴亜銇仹銇欍亴銆? >銇濄倢銇嬨倝銆佽粖銇悕缇┿伀銇ゃ亜銇︺€? >闆㈠寰屻伅鏃у銈掑悕涔椼倞銇俱仚銆? >闆㈠鎴愮珛鍓嶃伀銆侀洟濠氬緦銇銇у绱勩仺銇勩亞銇伅鐒$悊銇с仐銈囥亞銇嬨€? >鐒$悊銇牬鍚堛€佺従鍦ㄣ伄濮撱仹濂戠磩銆侀洟濠氬緦鏃у銇銇堛倠鎵嬬稓銇嶃亴蹇呰銇犮仺鎬濄亜銇俱仚銇? >闄搁亱灞€銇█銇堛伆銇勩亜銇仹銇欍亱锛? >蹇呰銇儏鍫便亱銇倧銇嬨倞銇俱仜銈撱亴銆佽卜銇嗐伄銇唤鑷嫊杌娿伄銈广儦銉笺偡銈銇? 銇с仚銆? >鎶曠鏃ユ檪閫氬牨銇欍倠銉栥儍銈優銉笺偗鈻? >銇仸銇? >銉ゃ儠銉? > . . 銉°兗銉仹绱逛粙璩晱鑰呫亴閬搞倱銇犮儥銈广儓銈兂銈点兗鍥炵瓟 .鈻? > 绱嶆湡銈勫€ゅ紩銇嶃倐鑰冩叜銇欍倠銇倝鍑哄悜銇勩仧鏂广亴銉欍偪銉笺亱銇ㄦ€濄亜銇俱仚銇屻€?璺濋洟銇屽垎銇嬨倝銇亜銇仹銇欍亴銆佸柖妤優銉炽伀銈堛仯銇︺伅銆佹潵銇︺亸銈屻倠鍫村悎銈傘亗銈娿伨銇欍倛鍠舵キ鏅傞枔鍐呫伀銇┿亞銇椼仸銈傝銇戙仾銇嬨仯銇熴伄銇у銇綍搴︺亱鑷畢銇俱仹鏉ャ仸璨般仯銇熶簨銇傘倞銆? >銇濄亾銇俱仹鍑哄悜銇忋伄銇岄洠銇椼亜銇倝杩戙亸銇悓绯诲垪銇儑銈c兗銉┿兗銇傘倞銇俱仜銈撱亱锛?銇濄亾銈掗€氥仐銇﹁舶銇嗕簨銇屽嚭鏉ャ仾銇勩亱銇ㄣ倞銇傘亪銇氳仦銇勩仸銇裤伨銇椼倗銇嗐€? >绱嶈粖寰屻伄涓嶅叿鍚堛仾銇╁緦銆呫伄浜嬨倐鑰冦亪銇熴倝鎷呭綋鍠舵キ銉炪兂銇ㄨ繎銇忋伄銉囥偅銉笺儵銉笺伄涓℃柟銇⒑瑾嶃仐銇熴亴銇勩亜銇嬨倐銇с仚銆? >鐝惧湪銇埜绫嶄笂銇с伄浣忔墍銈勬皬鍚嶃仹銇绱勩仺杌婃瑷笺伀銇倠銇仹銆侀洟濠氬緦銇鏇淬伅銆侀櫢閬嬪眬銇с伄鎵嬬稓銇嶃亴蹇呰銇с仚銆? >蹇呰鏇搁銈掔⒑瑾嶃仐鎸併仯銇︺亼銇板ぇ銇椼仸闆c仐銇忋仾銇勩伅銇氥仹銇欍€?銇°仾銇裤伀瑾般亱銇銇嬨亼銈夈倢銇︺儕銉炽儛銉笺亱銈夊厓鏃﹂偅銇従浣忔墍銇屻儛銉仧銇忋仾銇勩伄銇ч洟濠氬緦銈傚叏銇忓鏇淬仜銇氥伀涔椼仯銇︺伨銇欍亼銇┿€? >鍒ャ伀鍟忛銇亜銇с仚銈堛€侀兊渚垮眬銇虎閫佸眾銇ц嚜鍕曡粖绋庛伄鐢ㄧ礄銇屼粖銇綇鎵€銇眾銇嶃伨銇欍亱銈夌◣閲戙仌銇堛亶銇°倱銇ㄦ墪銇c仸銈屻伆銆佽粖妞溿倐鍟忛銇亸閫氥仯銇︺伨銇欍€? >浠绘剰淇濋櫤銇€佷唬鐞嗗簵銇浕瑭便仐銇︽墜缍氥亶銇椼仸璨般亜銇俱仐銇熴亴銆?杌婃瑷笺仾銈撱仸鍏ㄩ儴闆㈠鍓嶃伄銇俱伨銇с仚绗?浜嬫晠銇亗銇c仧鏅傘伀銈傝瀵熴伀銆屽厓鏃﹂偅銇嬨倝閫冦亽銇︺倠銇仹灞呮墍銇屻儛銉仾銇勩倛銇嗐伀杌婃瑷笺倰澶夋洿銇椼仸銇亜銈撱仹銇欍€佸厤瑷辫銇亴鐝句綇鎵€銇ㄧ従鍦ㄣ伄濮撱仹銇欍€嶃仹浣曚竴銇よ█銈忋倢銇俱仜銈撱仹銇椼仧銇嬨倝銆? >鍏嶈ū瑷笺仚銈変綇姘戠エ銇亗銈嬪疅瀹躲伄浣忔墍銇с€岀従浣忔墍銆嶃仹銇€併仾銇勩伄銇с仚銇?浣忔皯绁ㄣ亱銈夈儛銉仾銇勩倛銇嗐伀绉诲嫊銇椼仸銇亜銆? >浜嬫晠鍑︾悊銇潵銇熻瀹樸亱銈夈€屻仢銇嗐€佸ぇ澶夈仩銇€︺€嶃仺鑻ュ共鍚屾儏銇曘倢銇熴亸銈夈亜銇с仚銆? >绋庨噾銇曘亪銇嶃仭銈撱仺鎵曘仯銇︺倢銇般€佷綍銈傝█銈忋倢銇俱仜銈撱伃銆? >杌婃瑷笺伄澶夋洿銇墠銇厤瑷辫銇犮亼銇€侀洟濠氭垚绔嬨亴銇椼仧銈夈€佹埜绫嶈瑒鏈倓鏈睄鍦般伄杓夈仯銇熶綇姘戠エ銇仼蹇呰鏇搁銈掔⒑瑾嶃仐銇︺亱銈夎繎銇忋伄瑭﹂〒鍫淬仹銈点儍銈点仺澶夋洿銇椼仧缃亜銇熸柟銇勩亜銇с仚銆? >閵€琛屻倓銇濄伄浠栧悕缇╁鏇淬伄鑹层€呫仾鎵嬬稓銇嶄笂銇ц韩鍒嗚銇屽繀瑕併仾鍫村悎銇屻亗銈嬨伄銇с€? >杌婃瑷笺伄澶夋洿銇€佸繀瑕併仹銇欍亴銆併仢銈撱仾銇劍銈嬪繀瑕併伅銆併亗銈娿伨銇涖倱銆? >銉娿兂銉愩兗銇屽銈忋倠銈堛亞銇湴鍩熴仾銈夊灏戙伄鎵嬫暟鏂欍亴銇嬨亱銇c仧銈堛亞銇皸銇屻仐銇俱仚銆?闄搁亱灞€銇浕瑭便仹鑱炪亼銇版暀銇堛仸銇忋倢銇俱仚銈堛€? >鎶曠鏃ユ檪閫氬牨銇欍倠銇撱伄鍥炵瓟銈掓敮鎸併仚銈? >鐝惧湪浜恒亴鏀寔銇椼仸銇勩伨銇?銇婄ぜ鐨嗐仌銇俱€併偝銉°兂銉堛亜銇熴仩銇嶃伨銇椼仸銇傘倞銇屻仺銇嗐仈銇栥亜銇俱仐銇燂紒浠婂洖鍥炵洰銇姇绋裤仾銇仹銇欍亴銆? >鍥炵洰銇檪銇儸銈广亴銇ゃ亜銇熴倝銇婄煡銈夈仜銉°兗銉亴鏉ャ仸銇勩仧銇仹浠婂洖銉°兗銉亴鏉ャ仾銇嬨仯銇熴仧銈併€佽銇嬨倝銈傘儸銈广亜銇熴仩銇戙仸銇勩仾銇勩仺鎬濄仯銇︺亜銇? >姘椼仴銇忋伄銇岄亝銇忋仾銈娿€佺敵銇楄ǔ銇傘倞銇俱仜銈撱仹銇椼仧銆? >寮曘仯瓒娿仐鍏堛伄銉囥偅銉笺儵銉笺仺濂戠磩銇椼仾銇勩仺銇勩亼銇亜銇亱銇ㄦ€濄仯銇︺亜銇俱仐銇熴亴浠婃棩銆佽繎鎵€銇儑銈c兗銉┿兗銇浕瑭便仐銇﹁仦銇勩仸銇裤伨銇椼仧銇ㄣ亾銈? >銇撱仭銈夈仹濂戠磩銇椼仸銆佸悜銇撱亞銇х磵杌娿仺銇勩亞銇亴鍙兘銇с亗銈嬨仺銇勩亞銇撱仺銇犮仯銇熴伄銇? >濂戠磩銈掓笀銇俱仜銇︽潵銇俱仐銇熴€? >锛堛亾銇°倝銇х磵杌娿仐銇﹀疅瀹躲伨銇т箺銇c仸甯般倢銈屻伆銇勩亜銇仹銇欍亴銆佸崐鏃ャ亱銇嬨倠璺濋洟銇с仐銇︾劇鐞嗐仩銇c仧銇仹銇欙級绱嶆湡銇?銉舵湀鍗娿亸銈夈亜銇嬨亱銈嬭粖绋伄銇熴倎銆佽粖銈掋亰銇曘亪銇︺亰銇忋亾銇ㄣ倰鍎厛銇? >鍚嶅瓧銇鏇淬伅寮曘仯瓒娿仐寰屻仹銈傘亜銇勩亱銇ㄦ€濄仯銇︺亜銇熴伄銇с仚銇? >銉娿兂銉愩兗銇渶鍒濄亱銈夊悜銇撱亞銇墿銇仐銇熴亜銇ㄦ€濄仯銇︺亜銇熴伄銇с€併仢銇偣灏嬨伃銇俱仐銇熴仺銇撱倣浣忔皯绁ㄣ亴鐣板嫊鍑烘潵銇︺亜銈屻伆銆侀洟濠氬墠銇с倐鏈€鍒濄亱銈夈仢銇倛銇嗐伀鐧婚尣鍑烘潵銈嬨仺銇勩亞銇撱仺銇с仐銇熴€? >銇椼亱銇椼€併亾銇°倝銇亜銇亴銈夈伄浣忔皯绁ㄧ暟鍕曘亴鍑烘潵銈嬨伄銇嬨亴銈忋亱銈夈仾銇嬨仯銇熴仧銈? >甯板畢寰屽焦鎵€銇瓾 銈掕銇俱仐銇熴倝銆? >杌㈠嚭銇兊閫併仹銈傚眾銇戙倝銈屻倠銇屻€佽虎鍏ャ伅绐撳彛銇銇嬨仾銇勩仺銇勩亼銇亜銈堛亞銇с仐銇熴€? >锛堛伝銇ㄣ倱銇┿伄鑷不浣撱亴銇濄伄銈堛亞銇с仚銇級濮斾换鐘躲仹杌㈠叆灞娿倰鍑恒仚銇撱仺銇嚭鏉ャ倠銇仹銇欍亴銆佸紩銇h秺銇椼亴娓堛倱銇с亜銇亜銇ㄥ眾銇戝嚭鍑烘潵銇俱仜銈撱仺涓嬨伀鏇搞亜銇︺亗銈娿兓銉汇兓瑷€銈忋仾銇嶃們銈忋亱銈夈仾銇勩亾銇ㄣ亱銈傜煡銈屻伨銇涖倱銇屻€併仼銇c仭銇裤仭鍚嶅瓧銇鏇淬伅寮曘仯瓒娿仐寰屻伀琛屻亞銇ゃ倐銈娿仾銇仹涓€绶掋伀銇欍倢銇般亜銇勩伄銇嬨仾銇併兓銉汇兓銉汇仺銆? >锛堛儕銉炽儛銉煎鏇淬亴蹇呰銇垎璨荤敤銇屽姞绠椼仌銈屻倠銇嬨倐鐭ャ倢銇俱仜銈撱亴銉汇兓銉伙級浠娿伅銆佺磵杌娿伄姝g⒑銇檪鏈熴仺鎸炯鍏堛伄閫g怠寰呫仭銇с仚銆? >浠栥伀銈傞洟濠氥伀銈堛倠鎵嬬稓銇嶃亴銇勩倣銇勩倣蹇呰銇伄銇с仚銇屻€侀爲寮点仯銇﹁銇嶃仧銇勩仺鎬濄亜銇俱仚銆? >銇裤仾銇曘伨銇傘倞銇屻仺銇嗐仈銇栥亜銇俱仐銇熴€?鎶曠鏃ユ檪銇撱伄璩晱銇焦銇珛銇°伨銇椼仧銇嬶紵浜恒亴銆屻亾銇甉& ; 銇屽焦銇珛銇c仧銆嶃仺鎶曠エ銇椼仸銇勩伨銇? >鍒ャ伄銈兗銉兗銉夈仹鍐嶆绱仚銈? >瑭崇窗妞滅储闁㈤€c偔銉笺儻銉笺儔闆㈠杌? >銈广偤銈? >瀹熷杌婃瑷? >銉欍偣銉堛偄銉炽偟銉间互澶栥伄鍥炵瓟涓︺伋鏇裤亪鏂扮潃闋? >鏀寔鏁伴爢鍥炵瓟 .鈻? > 锛炪倓銇倞搴椼伀鐩存帴鍑哄悜銇嬨仾銇勩仺鐒$悊銇с仚銇嬨伃鍠舵キ銉炪兂銇屾潵銇︺亸銈屻倢銇拌壇銇勩仹銇椼倗銇嗐亴銆佷竴鑸殑銇噾閵亴鐧虹敓銇欍倠濂戠磩銇闈仹鎹哄嵃銇屽繀瑕併伀銇倠銇亴褰撱仧銈婂墠銇с仚銈堛€? >浠婂眳銈嬨仺銇撱倣銇ц卜銇c仸銆佺磵杌婂緦銇疅瀹躲伀涔椼仯銇﹀赴銈屻伆銇勩亜銈撱仒銈冦仾銇勩伄锛? >鍚嶇京銆佷綇鎵€澶夋洿绛夈伅瀹熷銇赴銇c仸銇嬨倝銆佹銇粖妞溿伄鏅傘伀杌婃銈掑嚭銇欏簵銇█銇堛伆銈勩仯銇︺亸銈屻伨銇欍倛銆? >鎶曠鏃ユ檪閫氬牨銇欍倠銇婄ぜ銇欍倠銇撱伄鍥炵瓟銈掓敮鎸併仚銈? >鐝惧湪浜恒亴鏀寔銇椼仸銇勩伨銇?鍥炵瓟 .鈻? > .閬犻殧鍦般亱銈夈仹銈傚晱椤屻亗銈娿伨銇涖倱銇屻€併仈瀹熷銇柟銇岃博澹插簵銇嚭鍚戙亸浜嬨亴銇с亶銈屻伆銉欍偪銉笺亱銇ㄦ€濄亜銇俱仚銆? >銆€銇撱伄銈点偆銉堛仹銈傝粖銇仱銇勩仸鑹层€呮浉銇嬨倢銇︺亜銈嬮€氥倞銇撱伄鐩仹瑕嬨仸銇ㄨ█銇嗐伄銇屽ぇ鍒囥仾銇仹銆? >銆€瑁忋儻銈躲仺銇椼仸銇偣銈恒偔銇粖銈掕卜銇嗐仾銈夎繎銇忋伄銈广偤銈伄銉囥偅銉笺儵銉笺倰閫氥仐銇︺€併仈瀹熷杩戙亸銇偣銈恒偔銇儑銈c兗銉┿兗銇嬨倝璨枫亪銇颁尽鏍间氦娓夈伄浣欏湴銈傘亗銈嬨亱銈傜煡銈屻仾銇勩仐銆佽粖涓°伀銇ゃ亜銇︺伄涓嶅叿鍚堛伀瀵惧繙銇椼仸銈傘倝銇堛倠銇仼瀹夊績銇с亶銈嬨亱銇ㄦ€濄亜銇俱仚銆傘伨銇熴€佽繎銇忋仹銉忋兂銈炽倰銇ゃ亜銇﹀绱勩倐绲傘倧銈屻倠銇椼€傚儠銈傘亾銇墜銈掍娇銇c仧浜嬨亗銈娿伨銇欍€? >.璩煎叆鐧婚尣鏅傜偣銇с伄鎴哥睄涓婃皬鍚嶃仹銇櫥閷层仺銇倞銆佸澶夋洿鏅傘伀灞娿亼鍑恒仺銇倞銇俱仚銆? >銆€鎵嬬稓銇嶇殑銇伅闆c仐銇忋亗銈娿伨銇涖倱銆傞亱杓告敮灞€鏃ч櫢閬嬪眬銇亰鍟忋亜鍚堛倧銇涖亸銇犮仌銇勩€? >銆€鏂扮敓娲汇亴銇嗐伨銇忋偣銈裤兗銉堛仚銈嬨亾銇ㄣ倰銇婄銈娿仐銇俱仚銆傘亰銇涖仯銇嬨亜銇洖绛斻伀銇倞銇俱仐銇熴€? >鎶曠鏃ユ檪閫氬牨銇欍倠銇婄ぜ銇欍倠銇撱伄鍥炵瓟銈掓敮鎸併仚銈? >鐝惧湪浜恒亴鏀寔銇椼仸銇勩伨銇?きつい坂を上る時、瞬間フロントが浮きますが(1 2) | 自転車?マウンテンバイクお気に入り投稿に追加する人が追加しました回答数閲覧数きつい坂を上る時、瞬間フロントが浮きますが何が楽しいのか、急な坂道を見つけると上りたくなってしまいます。いる方です。ですから運営体制も安全面に対する取り組みなども本気でやっているので安心無理、ごめんなさいとだけ帰ってきましたそして今日、彼女の家の近くの公園に彼女とよく溿儍銇ㄣ仐銇︺亜銈嬫湇銇亰灏汇倛銈婁笀銇岄暦銇勩伄銇亗銇俱倞銈堛亸銇亱銇c仧