The laws of physics are absolute - in theory. And with an exception. So absolute doesn't always mean what we think it means.
How heat and temperature related to energy, the laws of thermodynamics, seem to violate the laws of physics theoretically. But now they theoretically don't.
A paper recently published in EPJ B discussed a theoretical model of the environment's influence on a particle does not violate the third law of thermodynamics, despite appearances to the contrary. These findings are relevant for systems at the micro or nanometer scale that are difficult to decouple from the heat or the quantum effects exerted by their environment.
The authors focused on a model system favored by thermodynamics experts that consists of a free particle strongly coupled to a heat bath, representing the effect of its environment. Studies of such systems typically focus on how much energy is needed to raise their temperature by a certain amount, or so-called specific heat. Previous theoretical predictions suggested that, under certain circumstances, the specific heat can decrease below zero at a temperature of strictly zero (−273.15°C).
This prediction appears to breach the third law of thermodynamics, which states that the specific heat must drop to zero value at strictly zero temperature.
The authors demonstrated that the third law of thermodynamics is not actually violated. In fact, a real particle will always be confined to a finite volume—even if that volume may be extremely large. Therefore, they discovered that previous studies need to be modified in order to account for a spatial confinement of the particle.
The new model demonstrates how the negative specific heat for a truly free particle is related to a dip in the specific heat, which should be observable in the presence of a confinement.
Citation: R. Adamietz, G.-L. Ingold, and U. Weiss (2014), Thermodynamic anomalies in the presence of general linear dissipation: from the free particle to the harmonic oscillator, European Physical Journal B, DOI 10.1140/epjb/e2014-50125-2
- PHYSICAL SCIENCES
- EARTH SCIENCES
- LIFE SCIENCES
- SOCIAL SCIENCES
Subscribe to the newsletter
Stay in touch with the scientific world!
Know Science And Want To Write?
- The New York Times On Drugs - Wrong, Naive Or Misleading?
- Mutation May Cause Early Loss Of Sperm Supply
- Women With Endometriosis Need More Support, Less Judgment
- Olive Oil Destroys Cancer Cells
- The Real Meaning Of The Blue Black White Gold Dress
- Are You Allergic To Marijuana?
- Leukemia-associated Mutations Almost Inevitable As We Age
- "Hi Robert, Excellent expressions!!! I am currently writing a short story which involves a scenario..."
- "The military hires and does some pretty nice pure science work, e.g., Shiva Star USAF to Sandia..."
- "Impressive fellow this Yale man. He's excellent at making declarations, and I'm impressed by his..."
- "People are seeing the dress as ivory and gold, not ivory and black. Sorry dude!..."
- "Confidence in an all-sufficient worldview would have to be sourced in a universal point of reference..."
- Preclinical Proof-of-Principle of MOTS-c and its Role in Metabolic Regulation
- Brain waves and moving toward a unified theory of consciousness control
- Study identifies first-ever human population adaptation to toxic chemical, arsenic
- How much overdetection is acceptable in cancer screening?
- MOTS-c: Newly discovered hormone mimics the effects of exercise