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    Schizophrenia - a Medusa head



    I want to try to bring the many seemingly contradictory models of schizophrenia under one roof again. Base is to be the dopamine hypothesis, yes , first the observed increase in the negative ( minus ) symptoms under dopamine blockade seems to contradict the dopamine hypothesis. Not necessarily ! Negative symptoms may all be traced back to a disturbance of fine motor skills. One case to note is the differences in the language restriction in depressives compared with schizophrenics. The depressed makes unusually long pauses between the sounds, while the sounds are washed out with schizophrenia. The latter is thanks to a limited fine motor skills. Fine motor skills , however, depends on the balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. Both an over- and understeer of the signal accordingly leads to negative symptoms . Furthermore, one has to develop fine motor skills, look , for example, in the language. The developing organism is dependent on trial and error in order to develop the appropriate areas of the brain . Whit disturbed ratio of excitation and inhibition these experiments provide only a " noisy " signal. This is explaines in this case, the under-development of the Wernicke language area. Comparable to it is likely to behave with others, fine motor controlling brain areas. Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia begin at birth . Why positive symptoms occur later in life, see note at the end of this text



    The PCP psychosis can also be brought under the hat of a disturbance by altered dopamin signaling way balance between excitation and inhibition . The NMDA receptor is associated with a very long time opening kation channel. As long as this channel is triggered, the postsynaptic cell can no longer be excited. PCP blocks this channel , that is, the excitability of the cell is promoted, the balance between excitation and inhibition is disrupted.



    The serotonergic system is obviously the place where the positive symptoms are generated with hallucination and delusion and hearing voices . But this does not contradict the dopamine hypothesis , if one assumes that the serotonin system is triggered by the dopamine system. The limping behind of the pharmacological effect of dopamine blockade behind clinical effect may be explained by this way (and the fast clinic reaction to serotonin blockade, too).



    The different organic brain defects are likely to be a secondary phenomenon that comes through the disturbed conduction. The brain can not produce clean efferent signal and thus receives only noisy afferents , which certainly influenced his development measurable. The impoverished folding of the cerebral cortex may be attributed to the used atypical , serotonin -blocking and thus the memory formation and maintenance of interfering neuroleptics.



    More food gets the idea of the disturbed excitation - inhibition ratio as a cause of schizophrenia by the psycho- pathogenic effect of cocaine , which indeed inhibit the inhibitory neurons (chloride ion channel blockade ) with corresponding negative ( mask-like face) and positive ( delusions) symptoms , the " cocaine schizophrenia " .



    More contradictions between the relevant work on the etiology of schizophrenia ( for example, the significant deviations of identically designed studies on schizophrenia and genetics ) are likely to result from false positive diagnoses of the subjects.



    Of course, must also follow a therapy to the first unifying etiology of schizophrenia. Various observations on both the native as well as the medicated patients show that Lycopus virginicus / europaeus exerts an excellent , both the positive as well as the negative symptoms ameliorative influence. The effect is very fast , within a few hours. Some measurable effects to prolactin and TSH on Lycopus as well as the rapid onset of action, because of neurophysiological considerations suggest an effect by the cerebrospinal fluid on the adenohypophysis .

    The gift of Lycopus should be done as a decoction : one to two teaspoons Lycopus europaeus / virginicus herba to a cup of boiling water , the morning and evening over a maximum period of seven days. Repeat after an interval of three weeks. In outpatient practice would be to think of a coupling with the lunar cycle .



    Finally, the promised remark on the late onset of positive symptoms , which indeed ,different from the negative symptoms , which commences with the birth , only the grown-up people meet . It's just the need of a critical mass of experience and knowledge to develop delusions etc. under a pathologically increased excitability of the brain. Very nice shows the NIMH Israeli High Risk Study, which with good support knowledge acquisition and increased social contacts shows an increased incidence of schizophrenia ( compared family children with kibbutz children).

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