Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. syn. B. frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. Family Fabaceae (Papilionaceae ) Used Part Fruit pieces Distribution Area It is common throughout the greater part of India, ascending the Himalayas up to 900 m and in peninsular India up to 1,200 m. Common Uses . The seeds are purgative, ophthalmic, anthelmintic, rubefacient, depurative and tonic. They are useful in herpes, skin diseases, ringworm, opthalmopathy, epilepsy, round worms, arthritis, flatulence, constipation and diabetes. The seeds possess a faint odour, and taste slightly acrid and bitter. They are reported to possess aperient and rubefacient properties; they are sometimes substituted for santonin. A composite powder from the dried seeds of B. monosperma, Embelia ribes Brum. f. and Mallotus philippensis Muell.-Arg. was found to be effective in controlling the worm Hymenolepis nana (V. Siebold) in human intestine. However, the clinical use of seeds as an anthelmintic drug in humans is not safe, as it may produce nephrotoxicity. The seeds are also used as vermifuge in veterinary medicine. A paste of the powdered seeds with lemon-juice is applied as a cure for ringworm and herpes. A decoction of the seeds is given in gravel. The flowers are astringent, sweet, cooling constipating, aphrodisiac, haemostatic, diuretic,febriguge, depurative and tonic. They are useful in vititated conditions of pitta and kapha., diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, menorrhagia, strangury, fever, leprosy, skin diseases, swellings, hyperdipsia, haematoptysis, arthritis, burning sensation, bone fractures and are very efficacious in birth control. Considered useful in worm infestations, cure of ring worm and for dispersing boils and pipmples. The main preparations employing the crude drug are Palaashabijaadi churna and Paal The seeds alleviate deranged vata and kapha and is useful in abdominal tumors, intestinal worms, urinary diseases, skin diseases and piles. In ancient Ayurvedic literature there is extensive mention of drug palasa in the treatment of worm infestations. Externally the seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin, act as rebefacient. They have been successfully used for the cure of the form of herpes,known as dhobie's itch. When made into paste they are used as a remedy for ringworm. The flowers are reported to possess astringent, diuretic, depurative, aphrodisiac and tonic properties; they are used as an emmenagogue, and as poultice in orchitis and to reduce swellings, for bruises and sprains. They are also effective in leprosy, leucorrhoea and gout. A decoction of the flowers is given in diarrhoea and to puerperal women. The leaves are credited with astringent, tonic, diuretic and aphrodisiac properties. They are used to cure boils, pimples and tumorous haemorrhoids and are internally given in flatulent colic, The roots cure night blindness and other defects of sight, useful in elephantiasis. The roots are useful in elephantiasis, and in curing night blindness and other defects of sight. They are also reported to cause temporary sterility in women. The rootbark is used as an aphrodisiac and an analgesic And anthelmintic. It is also applied in sprue, piles, ulcers, tumours and dropsy. It yields a coarse fibre which is used for country brushes, cordage, slow matches and for caulking boats The bark is hot acrid, bitter, oily , appetiser, aphrodisiac, laxative, anthemlmintic, useful in fractures of the bones, diseases of the anus, dysentary, piles, hydrocoele, cures ulcer and tumors. The leaves are good for diseases of the eye. The gum is astringent to the bowels, good in dysentery, stomatitis, cough, pterygium , conrneal opacities, cures excessive perspiration. The flowers are sweet, bitter, hot acrid, astringent to the bowels, increase "vata "and cure ", kapha", leprosy, strangury, gout, skin diseases, tumors, abdominal troubles. The bark is reported to possess astringent, bitter, pungent, alterative, aphrodisiac and anthelmintic properties. It is useful in tumours, bleeding piles and ulcers. The decoction is prescribed in cold, cough, fever, various forms of haemorrhages, in menstrual disorders and in the preparation of tonics and elixirs. A red juice exudes from natural cracks and also from artificial incisions in the bark. When fresh, the juice is ruby-red and transparent. It dries to form a gum known as BUTEA GUM or BENGAL KINO and forms small elongated tears or irregular, elongated masses, smaller than grains of barley, apparently black and opaque but actually ruby-red and translucent. The tears are very brittle and can readily be pulverized into a reddish powder, and are water-soluble. On keeping, the gum becomes dull, nearly black, opaque and tough. The fresh juice is applied to ulcers and in relaxed, congested, and septic sore throat. The gum is a powerful astringent; it is given internally for diarrhoea and dysentery, phthisis and haemorrhage from stomach and bladder; its infusion is occasionally employed as a local application in leucorrhoea. A solution of the gum is applied to bruises and erysipelatous inflammations and ringworm. The gum known as Bengalkino or Buteakino is astringent, constipating, haemostatic, aphrodisiac, depurative and tonic and is useful in diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, haemoptysis, haematemesis, diabetes, leprosy, skin diseases, ulcer, pharyngodynia, general debility, hyperacidity, dyspepsia and fever. The gum is reported to be often used as a substitute for or an adulterant of genuine gum kino of commerce obtained from Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Similar crude drugs 1. Butea superba Roxb. 2. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.