Scientific Name Commiphora mukul(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. syn. Balsamodendron mukul Hook. ex Stocks syn Commiphora wightii (Arn.)Bhandari Family Burseraceae Used Part Gum Distribution Area A small tree or shrub with spinescent branches occurring in the arid rocky tracts of Rajputana, Khandesh, Berar, Mysore, Sind, and Baluchistan. Common Uses . Guggul has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is astringent and antiseptic. When taken internally it acts as a bitter, stomachic and carminative, stimulating the appetite and improving the digestion. It acts as a diaphoretic, expectorant and diuretic, and is said to be a uterine stimulant and emmenagogue. The resin is used in the form of a lotion for indolent ulcers and as a gargle in caries of the teeth, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea alveolaris, chronic tonsilitis and pharangytis, and ulcerated throat. It is also used as a stomachic in chronic dyspepsia with dilation and atony of the walls of the stomach. Inhalation of the fumes from burnt guggul is recommended in hay fever, acute and chronic nasal catarrh, chronic laryngitis, chronic bronchitis and phthisis. It is an ingredient of ointments for ulcers. An Ayurvedic preparation "Thyrocap" having guggul as one of the constituents is used to control simple and diffuse goitre very effectively. During the treatment, T4 and T8 cells increase in the serum of patients. "Kanchanar guggul", also a composite preparation containing this resin is used in the treatment of swellings like galaganda, gandamala, granthi etc. Guggul is one of the constituents of the well known Ayurvedic preparation "Rumalaya" which is used to treat and control rheumatoid arthritis. It is able to reduce pain and morning sickenss significantly. Guggul also enters into the formulation of the Ayurvedic preparations "Laksha Guggul" used in healing fractures and "Arogyavardhinivati" reported to control the parasite Entamoeba histolytica in intestinal and hepatic amoebiasis. The resin is also used in a shampoo against head parasites. Pharmacological Effect Like all oleo-resins it causes an increase of leucocytes in the blood and stimulates phagocytosis. Guggul is reported to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hypercholesteroemic subjects. It is reported to be more effective than Clofibrate as a hypolipidemic, the latter is being withdrawn in USA because of its toxic side effects. When ethyl acetate soluble portion of the resin was fractionated into acidic and neutral portions, the neutral portion showed hypocholesterolemic activity while the acidic portion showed anti-inflammatory activity. The guggul steroids can also be converted into animal steroids like diosgenin and offer an alternative to it. Others C. mukul is the source of Indian Bdellium, a gum-resin obtained used as incense, as a fixative in perfumery, in medicine, and as a substitute for African Bdellium. Another composite formulation with guggul (Pushkar guggul) as one of the ingredients and Inula racemosa is used in controlling hyperlipidemia and as an anti-anginal. It is reported to show activity equal to lovastatin and colestipol.