Metabolic engineering and production of next generation bio fuels. Ashwani Kumar , Alexander von Humboldt Fellow Department of Botany, Univeristy of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 India Email: Phone 0141 2654100. Mobile: 94161663610 Abstract: Metabolic engineering offers several possibilities of obtaining desired metabolites from unutilized or underutilized sources of biofuel. Wold oil reserves are 1.1. trillion barrels and biotechnology shall play important role in developing next generation biofuel . Last 20 years have seen record high crude oil prices (>$148/barrel), emphasis on energy security/alternative biofuels ,CO2 capture, carbon trading, GHG reduction, advances in photobioreactor designs/materials, explosion in biotechnology, advances in, metabolic engineering and systems biology (“-omics”). In addition to of energy crops raised at energy plantation demonstration project centre for which agro-technology have been developed and improvements reported at University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004, several new energy crops have been described globally viz. Switch Grass, Field Peas, Barley, Alfalfa, Fescue, Miscanthus, Sugar Cane, Giant Reed and Agricultural Wastes have also assumed importance. The first generation bio fuel were based on wood fuel, hydrocarbon yielding plants, non-edible oil yielding plants with potential for conversion into petroleum products or diesel. They also included Corn and sugar to ethanol. Chemical transesterification of veg oils, tallow also belonged to this category also. Second Generation Biofuels included Lignocellulose to ethanol, Enzymatic bioconversion of Vegetable oil Fisher-Tropsch syngas to HC oil. Third generation Biofuels include Energy crops for bio-alcohol, Algal Hydrogen, Algal Oil/Biodiesel. Fourth generation Biofuels include genetically modified organisms and carbon negative energy crops. A review of next generation biofuel shall be presented.