Scientific Name Polyalthia. longifolia (Soon)Thwaitea. Family Annonaceae Used Part Bark Distribution Area Considered to be a native of the drier parts of Ceylon, very commonly cultivated all over India, in gardens and avenues. Common Uses . The bark is bitter, acrid,cooling,febrigue and antihelmintic. It is useful in fever, skin diseases, diabetes, hypertension, helminthiasis and vitiated conditions of vata and pitta. The bark is also used as a febrifuge in some parts of India. Similar crude drugs Polyalthia longifolia bark is used a adultrant to asoka tree Saraca asoca (Roxb) De Wilde . Pharmacological Effect In experimental animals, the aqueous extract of the bark stimulates the isolated ileum and uterus; it depresses the heart, lowers blood pressure and stimulates respiration. The stem-bark contains three clerodane diterpenes, polyalthialdoic acid (16-oxo-cleroda-3, 13(14)Z-dien-15-oic acid, C20H31O3, mp 167-70ø); kolavenic acid (16-methyl-cleroda-3, 13(14)E-15-carboxylic acid (C20H33O3); and 16 a-hydroxxy-cleroda-3, 13(14)-Z-dien-15, 16-olilde (C20H31O3, mp 100-01ø). All the three compounds exhibited significant inhibition against crown gall tumors on potato discs and cytotoxicities against human lung and breast carcinoma and colon- adenocarcinoma. Polyalthialdoic acid was the most active. The stem and stem-bark also gave a cytotoxic aporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (mp 280-81ø) besides noroliveroline and oliveroline-á-N-oxide. They also contain three azafluorene alkaloids, polyfothine; isooncodine and dari- enine, besides a new alkaloid, 6,7-dimethoxyonychine along with tetra hydroprotoberberine, (-)-stepholidine, onychine and darienine. A new g-thoxybutenolide clerodane diterpene is also reported from the bark. Water extract (12.4 per cent) of the bark showed nematocidal activity against dog worm larva Toxocaracanisand can be used to treat toxocariasis in humans. The alkaloid, lanuginosine isolated from the bark of P.longifoliavar pendulashowed antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative strains. Two clerodane diterpenoids identified as 16 a-hydroxxy-cleroda-3, 13(14)Z-dien-15, 16-olide (C20H30O3) and 16-oxo-cleroda-3, 13(14)E-dien-15-oic acid (C20H30O3) obtained from the air dried leaves exhibited antifeedant activity against casterlooper Achaea janata. Others The wood is yellowish or whitish, tolerably close-and even-grained, soft, flexible and light (wt., 587-641 kg./cu.m.). It is used for making barrels, drums and boxes, and for scaffolding and carriage shafts. It is reported to be suitable for packing cases, pencils and matches; the tall straight trunks were formerly used for masts