Scientific Name Solanum surattense Burm. f. syn. S. xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. Family Solanaceae Used Part Seeds and fruits Distribution Area Throughout India, in dry situtations as weed on roadside and wastelands Common Uses . The dried fruit powder is used as an internal medicine and the oil extracted is used for external application in the treatment of leucoderma. Useful in cough, asthama, chronic rhinitis,, dropsy, acute bronchitis and fever accompanied with chest affections. It is one of the main ingredients of the drug formulations for bronchial asthama specially for dislodging tenaceous phelgm.Root is an expectorant, forming an ingredient of the well-known Ayurvedic medicine, Dasamula. It is employed in cough, asthma and pains in chest, being used in the form of a decoction or an electuary. The drug is collected mainly from the wild plants, as there is no systematic cultivation of the herb. Roots are in good demand and are marketed entire. A paste of seeds in molasses is applied on the eyes of cows and buffaloes to cure cataract The root paste is utlized by the Mukundara tribals of Rajasthan for the treatment of hernia. The root and leaf decoction is used in kibe. The plant is reported to possess antiallergic activity. It forms a constituent of herbal cough remedy koflet (Himalaya) and is reported to promote expectoration. Stem, flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. They are prescribed for relief in burning sensation in the feet accompanied by vesicular watery eruptions. Leaves are applied locally to relieve pain. The juice of berries is used in sore-throat. Like roots, seeds are also administered as an expectorant in asthma and cough. The plant is credited with diuretic properties and is used to cure dropsy. Its juice is mixed with whey, chiretta , and ginger and given in fevers in Konkan (Maharashtra). The juice of the leaves, mixed with black pepper, is prescribed in rheumatism. The plant enters into an Ayurvedic compound Arkadhi which is useful in dengue fever, acute bronchitis and fevers accompanied by chest-affections. Main preparations are kantakaari avleha,Chyavanpraasha, Sudarshana churna, Kanakasava and Bayagiri taila. Similar crude drugs Solanum torvum Sw. and S. aculeatissimum Jacq. Pharmacological Effect Pharmacological studies on this herb have shown that aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plant possess hypotensive effect which is partly inhibited by atropine; the more persistent secondary fall in the blood pressure and broncho-constriction are inhibited by the antihistamine drugs. Both glycoalkaloid and fatty acid fractions of the extract cause liberation of histamine from chopped lung-tissue. The beneficial effect of the drug on bronchial asthma may be attributed to the depletion of histamine from bronchial and lung-tissue. Extracts of the whole plant show antiviral activity against Ranikhet disease-virus and also against Sarcoma 180 in the mice. Extracts of shoot and fruit show antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in phosphate buffer, p H 9.0 The ethanolic extract of roots exhibited antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus and stem extract against A. niger.