STRATEGIES FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION AND IMPROVEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:
STRATEGIES FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION AND IMPROVEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS. A. Kumar Energy Plantation Demonstration project and Biotechnology Center. Bio-Technology Lab Department of Botany University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004 Email. email@example.com ABSTRACT: A large number of hydrocarbon yielding plants like Calotropis procera, Euphorbia antisyphilitica have been reported to yield bio-fuel products. Attempts have been made to increase their growth and hydrocarbon yield potential. Studies were conducted to improve growth and productivity of these plants under field conditions In Rajasthan, Calotropis procera grows wild while Euphorbia antisyphilitica has been introduced from Mexico. Jatropha grows wild in south east Rajasthan which lies on south east side of Aravalli hill range which roughly divides the state in semi-arid and arid regions. Detailed studies have been conducted on the growth and cultivation and improvement of hydrocarbon contents of Calotropis procera and Euphorbia antisyphilitica. 12 accessions of Calotropis procera were analysed and their growth parameters studied at the Energy Plantation Demonstration Centre, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur under Department of Biotechnology project. Details of the investigation shall be presented. Keywords: Biomass resources, Biomass production, Biodiesel. 1 INTRODUCTION India has varied agroclimatic zones which have wide range of temperature, humidity, rainfall and soil conditions. Growth and productivity of plant depends upon a large number of edaphic, nutritional and environmental factors. Biomass is renewable source of Energy and is produced annually in amounts greater than the annual global requirement of the biomass. Use of biomass for energy and industry allows a significant quantity of hydrocarbons to be consumed without increasing the CO2 content of the atmosphere and thus makes a positive contribution to the Greehouse effect and to the problems of "global change" as occurs in both industrialized and developing countries. Further advantages from utilization of biomass include : liquid fuels produced from biomass contain no sulfur, thus avoiding SO2 emissions and also reducing emission of N0x. Biomass resources are potentially the worlds largest and sustainable energy source a renewable resource comprising 220 billion oven dry tones (about 4500 EJ) of annual primary production. The annual bioenergy potential is about 2900 EJ though only 270 EJ could be considered available on sustainable basis and at competitive prices. Most major energy scenarios recognize bioenergy as an important component in the future worlds energy. Projections indicate the biomass energy use to the range of 85 EJ to 215 EJ in 2025 compared to current global energy use of about 400 EJ of which 55 EJ are derived from biomass(2). Most plant species are herbaceous in nature and appear during rainy season. They are the first colonizers & are generally herb, which have several potential uses. Laticiferous plants are the early colonizers. Calotropis procera is a potential energy resource, containing latex, an emulsion of oil and water. The oil fraction looks, feels and acts like crude oil (1). The latex is converted into petroleum like substances by using hydrocracking in presence of zeolite catalysts (1). By some of the estimates majority of the compound in latex consists of terpenoids and sugars. The Calotropis procera is widely distributed in Western Rajasthan while Calotropis gigantea is found mostly under cultivated conditions near temples in Jaipur, Bharatpur, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Banswara division with relatively moderate climatic conditions. The occurrence of Calotropis species is related to the climatic conditions. Calotropis procera growing in Jaisalmer and productivity of have detergent properties so they are given in cholera. The fresh roots are used as a toothbrush and are considered by pathans to cure toothache. Aak is an alternative, tonic and diaphoretic, in large dose emetic. The plant produces latex in the laticifers. and triterpenes. From the hexane-insoluble fraction of this plant a new free cardenolide named proceragenin has been isolated. The medicinal importance of Calotropis procera prompted the studies on pharma-cological screening of the antibacterial and anti-aggregating activities of proceragenin. Procesterol, a new steroidal hydroxy ketone, has been isolated from it. Once the early colonizers are able to establish the trees make their appearance. Trees like Acacia spp are most prominent in the area. They make the upper tier. Such well colonized lands can be used for growing Euphorbia antisyphilitica which has yield potential of upto 80 dry tones in 5 year rotation cycle. Jatropha curcas can also be grown in this model and during the present study a three tier model is proposed for wasteland colonization and production of biofuels.