Scientific Name Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />
Used Part Stem
Distribution Area A large, glabrous, deciduous climbing shrub found
throughout tropical <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />India, ascending to an altitude of 300m.
Common Uses . T. cordifolia is mentioned in Ayurvedic literature as a
constituent of several compound preparations, used in general debility, dyspepsia, fevers and urinary diseases. An application prepared from the plant is used by the tribals in Bihar for fractures..
A decoction of the leaves is used for the treatmet of gout, and
young leaves, bruised in milk, are used as a liniment in erysipelas. The leaves are beaten with honey and applied to ulcers. Dried and powdered fruit, mixed with ghee or honey, is used as a tonic and also in the treatment of jaundice and rheumatism. The root is a powerful emetic and used for visceral obstructions; its watery extract is used in leprosy.
The plant is used in Ayurvedic rasayanas to improve immune system and body resistance against infections. The plant extract is used as immunomodulator in immunosuppression of obstructive jaundice, hepatic fibrosis, peritonitis and sepsis. The plant has been found effective in preventing fibrous changes and promotes regeneration of liver against CCl4 induced hepato toxicity.
The stem is widely used in many Ayurvedic and Unani formulations like `Dia-Dev' used for diabetes; `Septilin' given for bacterial infection; `Livfit' and `Phalatrikadi Kasaya' used against jaundice and `Mztone' for hypogonadism. It is also an ingredient of a patent drug taken in trigeminal neuralgia.
T. cordifolia is an ingredient of a fortified Ayurvedic formula
Raktawardak given in chronic fatigue syndrome, anaemia and
depression. The plant is also a constituent of Curill, a herbal
drug with antipyretic activity .
The plant is an ingredient of a herbal preparation BR-16A
(Mentat), beneficial in cases of mental retardation, carebral
deficiency and behavioural disorders.
A kind of starch (Giloe-ka-sat or Guduchi satva; yield, 0.48% on fresh- and 1.2% on dry-stem wt.) prepared from the aqueous extract of the dry stems is used as a tonic, and is indicated in several diseases causing debility.
The stem is highly valued in skin infections and is also useful
in purification of blood.
Pharmacological Effect Antiviral properties against Ranikhet disease in poultry have also been ascribed to this climber.
The bitter principles present in the drug showed antiperiodic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. The drug is reported to possess one-fifth of the analgesic effect of sodium salicylate. Its aqueous extract has a high phagocytic index. The active constituent in the drug was also found to inhibit in vitro the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Alcoholic extract of the stem shows activity against Escherichia coli. The acute and chronic effects of oral feeding of the plant,extracts to rabbits and albino rats on fasting blood sugar, glucose tolerance and against epiuephrine induced hyperglycaemia have been studied. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts caused reduction in the fasting blood-sugar which has been interpreted as indicating some indirect action of the drug on carbohydrate metabolism. Similarly, glucose tolerance was increased but a deterioration in tolerance occurred after one month treatment. It has been suggested that the action of the drug is due to its favourable effect on the endogenous insulin secretion, glucose uptake and inhibition of peripheral glucose release.
The effectiveness of the drugin improving short term memory and reversing the amnesic effect of scopolamine or electroconvulsive was investigated in mice. Administration of the drug 150-500 mg/kg body weight improved memory and memory retrieval in mice.
The plant is one of the constituents of LIV-52 a herbal drug.
Efficacy of LIV-52 in CCl4 induced hepatopathy was evaluated in goats. Animals when given orally LIV-52 (1ml/kg body weight) in two divided doses showed remarkable clinical and hemato-biochemical improvement. Histopathological regeneration of hepatic cells was also observed.
The plant extract exhibits in vitro antimalarial activity
against Plasmodium berghei. The aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform extracts of the leaves exhibit hypoglycaemic activity. The extracts have an insulin -like action and reduce blood glucose significantly but not the total lipid levels in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.