Birth of the Universe from the Zero Energy State

1) There was a pair creation of positive and negative energy in the early universe.

2) The total energy of universe is 0.

Stephen Hawking and Alan Guth et al. argued that gravitational potential energy is negative energy, and that such gravitational potential energy can offset all positive mass energy during a period of inflation.

3) The acceleration in the expansion of the universe observed suggests the existence of positive energy out of mass energy, and alternatively, it corresponds to what the overall gravitational potential energy of the universe has positive value, indicating that gravitational potential energy will not able to offset positive energy.

4) Nothing but the gravitational potential energy doesn’t completely offset mass energy. And for the birth of the universe from "nothing" and energy conservation at the birth of the universe, "negative mass", which corresponds to "negative energy", is needed.

5) The basic principle of physics of "lower state of energy is stable!" is wrong. So it should be modified to "lower state of energy as far as positive mass is concerned and higher state of energy as far as negative mass is concerned is stable!".

6) "Transition to the energy level of minus infinity", which was used to deny the existence of negative mass, did not occur, whereas a. Relativistic energy eq., b. Dirac eq., c. field equation existed, suggesting the existence of negative mass.

Birth of the Universe from Nothing - Computer Simulation

Void Structure results from~

1) The presence of primitive void due to a pair annihilation of positive mass and negative mass.

2) The presence of void due to gravitational contraction between positive mass and repulsive effect between negative mass.

Birth and Expansion of the Universe from singular point(or domain)

1) Even though all the mass of the universe come together in one small area on Big Bang, it does not have the same density as the black hole due to offsetting of density between positive mass and negative mass. Therefore it can be expandable.

2) The law of motion of positive mass and negative mass naturally explains that "expansion after birth" is the essential characteristics of the universe.

3) The expansion of the universe takes place in the state of total rest mass energy of "0" and, clusters of galaxies and the void structure can be achieved.

4) Energy conservation and momentum conservation exists without giving the initial velocity, and expansion of the universe occurs.

5) It does not require any other force except already known force, gravity.

---Icarus2

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Hypothesis of dark matter and dark energy with negative mass :

http://vixra.org/abs/0907.0015

[Simulation video]

Motion of the Negative mass