But what once was the future is now old tech and, instead, the goal is to take a patient's own cells and create replacement joints. A team of researchers have found a way to create these biological joints in animals, and they believe biological joint replacements for humans aren't far away.
In a study published The Lancet, a research team created new cartilage in animals using a biological "scaffold" in the animals' joints, including implant design and surgeries to implant the biologic joint replacements.
The scaffold was implanted in rabbits with a surgical technique currently used for shoulder replacement in humans. The surgery removes the entire humeral head, or the ball part of the ball-and-socket shoulder joints. The scaffolds are infused with a growth factor, which encourages the host's own cells, including stem cells, to become cartilage and bone cells. The advantage to this technique is that it avoids the need to harvest and implant cells, which requires multiple surgeries.
"The device was designed with both biological and mechanical factors in mind," said James Cook, a researcher in the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine and Dept of Orthopaedic Surgery. "It is unique in design and composition and in how it stimulates the body's own cells. This is the first time we have seen cartilage regeneration using this type of scaffold."
The study led by Jeremy Mao of Columbia University found that the rabbits given the infused scaffolds resumed weight-bearing and functional use of their limbs faster and more consistently than those without. Four months later, cartilage had formed in the scaffolds creating a new, functional cartilage surface for the humeral head. The team observed no complications or adverse events after surgery; the new tissue regeneration was associated with excellent limb use and shoulder health, indicating the procedure is both safe and effective.
The next step toward FDA approval and clinical use is to study the technique in larger animals.
"If we continue to prove the safety and efficacy of this biologic joint replacement strategy, then we can get FDA approval for use of this technology for joint replacements in people," Cook said. "We are still in the early phases of this process, but this study gives a big boost to its feasibility."
"We are continuing our concerted efforts in this arena," Cook said. "Our goal at Mizzou's Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory is to do away with metal and plastic joints, and instead, regenerate a fully functional biologic joint for everyone who needs one. We think this is the future of orthopaedics and we hope that future is starting here and now."
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