# Physical Sources of Noise

@article{Pierce1956PhysicalSO, title={Physical Sources of Noise}, author={John R. Pierce}, journal={Proceedings of the IRE}, year={1956}, volume={44}, pages={601-608} }

Johnson noise is caused by the fluctuation of charges or polarizable molecules in lossy materials. Its magnitude can best be calculated by means of statistical mechanics, which tells us that each degree of freedom must have associated with it an energy of ½ kT. This leads to the usual expressions for Johnson noise, including the fact that the available thermal noise power, from a resistor, a lossy network, a lossy dielectric, or an antenna is always kTB. In the case of a resistor, network, or… Expand

#### 60 Citations

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Abstract Some models of thermal noise as generated by electrical resistances are discussed, especially with respect to the corresponding correlation properties. A modified approach for the derivation… Expand

Noise in metamaterials

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Metamaterials made up of resonant elements containing lossy metallic conductors will invariably give rise to Johnson noise. A model based on nearest neighbor interaction of magnetically coupled… Expand

Noise in Oscillators

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Noise affects the behavior of oscillators in at least two important ways. During sustained oscillation, noise creates undesired perturbations or modulation in both the amplitude and the phase of the… Expand

Sampling Circuits That Break the kT/C Thermal Noise Limit

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Several circuit-level techniques are described which are used to reduce or cancel thermal noise and break the so-called kT/C limit, providing a powerful, new degree of freedom in circuit design. Expand

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Lossy metamaterial elements act as sources of Johnson noise, making such materials inherently noisy. A coupled transmission line model capable of describing the effective medium properties,… Expand

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A worker who uses results established in a field will discover many plausible reasons for believing the results, and he will find eventually that an air of inevitability and “understanding” pervades the subject. Expand

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