Turkey is the most secular of the Muslim countries in the world - some women wear headscarves (hijab), some do not. They are optional.

So when Turkish astrophysicst Rennan Pekünlü, who teaches at Ege University in Izmir, told women they could not wear headscarves in his classroom, he was bought up on criminal charges after a woman complained. He was found guilty of violating the freedoms and rights of women at the university.  He argued that he was upholding the Turkish constitution, which prohibits the display of religious symbols or affiliation in government offices and institutions supported by government funding. He was also found to be taking pictures of women who entered wearing headscarves, which is a cultural no-no, but he said he had permission. 

He was sentenced to 25 months in jail in September and his case will be decided by the Turkish Supreme Court of Appeals next month.

Turkish Astrophysicist Faces Prison for Objecting to Headscarves by Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, Science