The members of sub family Papilionaceae are herbs, shrubs or trees found in all climates and are widely used in tribal medicine.
The members of sub family Papilionaceae are herbs, shrubs or trees found in all climates but mostly between and near the tropics and are more abundant in the old than in the New World. The family includes the greatest number of Legumes, comparising 400 genera with about 7000 species. It is an extremely important family and its members yield nutritious food, fiber, shelter, valuable medicines and also virulent poisons (Datta and Mukherji, 1952).
The members exhibit most varied properties, some are amylaceous, other oleaginous, many yield resins, balsams and dyes, a few are astringent, acrid and bitter, narcotic and poisonous, emetic and purging, tonic and restorative . The seeds are often anti periodic and the root anthelmentic.
Some of the important genera are Abrus sp., Alhagi sp., Arachis sp., Butea sp., Cajanus sp., Cicer sp., Derris sp., Glycine sp., Glycyrrhiza sp., Medicago sp., Pisum sp., Phaselous sp., Psoralea sp., Sesbania sp., Tephrosia sp., Vicia sp. and Vigna sp..
Plants of Sub-family Papilionaceae
S. No. COMMON NAME IN HINDI COMMON NAME IN ENGLISH BOTANICAL NAME PART USED
1. Chirmiti Crab’s eyes , Indian Liquorice , Rosary pea , Rati seed Abrus precatorius Linn. Roots , leaves and seeds
2. Javansa , Jawasa , Junwasa , Juwasa , Yavasa. Arabian Manna Plant , Camel Thorn Persian Manna Plant Alhagi camelorum Linn. Twig root and leaves
16. Dhak , Palas , Tesu , Chichra NA Butea monosperma O.Kuntze. Root , bark , gum , leaf , flower , seeds , lye and juice .
17. Arhar , Thur & Arhar dal Pigeon pea , cango pea , Dal . Cajanus indicus Spreng. Seeds , leaves and flowers
18. Barasem , Gojiaseme , Sem Broad Bean , Sword Bean Canavalia ensiformis DC. Leaves
19 Chan , Chunma Chick pea , Horse gram , Black gram , Brown gram. Cicer arintinum Linn. Seeds
20. Aparajita , Aprajit , Kalijer, Kowa , Shobanjan , Vishnukranti Blue pea , Mussel shell , creeper Clitoria ternatea Linn. Root , leaves , seeds , stem and flower .
28. Ghunghunian Devil Bean , Wedge –leaved Crotalaria C. retusa Linn. Roots and leaves
32. Basam, Bansham, Jhunjhunia Warted crotalaria C. versucosa Leaves and root
36. Shisham , Shisu, Sistal , Paharisissu Blackwood of south India , Bombay blackwood. D. latifolia Roxb. Whole plant
38. Shisham , Sisam , Sissai , Sissu , Sisu SouthIndian Redwood , Sissoo D. sissio Roxb. Bark , leaves , oil and wood
39. NA NA D. spinosa Roxb. Root
40. NA NA D. tamarindifolia Roxb. Root
41. Bankhara , Bhatia NA D. volubilis Roxb. Leaves and root
42. Karanja NA Derris indica Benth. Root , bark , leaf , flower and seeds
43. Gonj Hog , Creeper Derris scandens Benth Bark
44. Kirtana NA D. uliginosa Benth Root-bark
45. Salpan , Salpani , Salun , Salwan , Shalpani Tick Trefoil Desmodium gangeticum DC. Root
46. NA NA D. heterophyllum DC. Whole plant
47. NA NA D.lasiocarpum DC. Root
48. NA NA D. polycarpum DC. Whole plant
49. Jat salpar NA D. pulchellum Benth. Flower and bark
50. NA NA D. retroflexum DC. Root
51. NA NA D. scalpe DC. Whole plant
52. Chankat , chamea , Sambar , Chamyat , Gurshagal NA D. tiliafolium G. Don Root
53. Kudaliya NA D. triflorum DC. Leaf
54. Gahat , Kulat , Kultha , Kulthi , Kulti , Kurti Horse Grain , Horse gram , Kooltee , Madras gram Dolichos biflorus Linn. Pulse
55. NA NA D. falcatus Klein. Root and seeds
Bhatavasu , Lobia , Bhetarasu , Makhanism Egyptian Bean , Indian Bean , Kidney Bean D. lablab Linn. Seed and leaves
57. Mandara , Paltamandara , Pangara , Pangra , Panjira Red bean tree , Indian coral tree , Bastard teak Erythrina indica Lam. Bark and leaves
58. NA NA E. ovalifolia Roxb. Fresh bark , leaves and seeds
59. NA NA E. stricta Roxb. Powered bark and flower
60. Dauldhak , Madar , Madara , Nasut , Pangara , Rowanna , Rungra Corky Coral tree E. suberosa Roxb. Bark
61. Salpan NA Fleminga chappar Ham. Root
62. Barasalpan , Bhalia , Kusunt, Supta NA F. congesta Roxb. Root
63. Barasalpan , Liptabasant NA F. nana Roxb. Root
64. NA Hop bean F. strobilifera R.Br Root and leaves
65. NA NA F. tuberosa Dalz. Tuber and root
66. Jethimadh , Joshtimadhu Liquorice Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Root , leaves and drug
67. Bhat , Bhatwan, Ramkurthi China bean , Japan bean , Soy bean , White bean Glycine Soja Sieb. & Zucc. Root
68. Surmainil Surat indigo , Wild indigo Indigofera argentea Linn. Root , leaves and seeds
69. NA NA I. aspalathoides Vahl. Leaves , root , flower and tender shoots
70. NA NA I . gerardiana R. Grah. Root and leaves
71 NA NA I . glabra Linn. Leaves
72. NA NA I . glandulosa Willd. Seeds
73. NA NA I . hirsute Linn. Leaves and fruit
74. Tokri NA I . linifolia Retz. Whole plant
75. NA NA I . oblongifolia Forsk. Root and stem
76. Hakna , Nil , Sakena NA I . pulchella Roxb. Root
Gouli , Lil , Nil, Nir. Common Indigo , Indigo I . tinctoria Linn. Root and leaves
78. Janglimethi NA I . trifoliata Linn Seeds
79. NA NA I. trito Linn. Fil. Seeds
80. Masur , masuridal Lentil Lens esculenta Moench . Seed
81. Banmethi , Metha , Marvo , Gorhadal , Sinji Small Melilot Melilot indica All Whole plant
82. Aspurk King’s Clover Melilot trefoil M. officinalis Lam . Plant
83. Goncha NA Mucuna capitata Sweet Whole plant
86. Cowage , Cowhage , Cowitch Gaunch , Goncha , Kaunch , Kawanch , Kivach , Kivachh , Kivanchh , Konch , Kuyach . M . prurita Hook. Root , fruit , pod , seeds , leaves and branches
87. NA NA Ormocarpum sennoides. Root
88. Asainda , Kalaphulas , Pamar , Sandan , Timsa , Tinnas Chariot Tree , Sandan Ougeina dalbergioides Benth . Bark
89. NA NA Pachyrhizus angulatus Rich. Root
90. Urad , Moth Kidney Bean Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq . Pulse
91. NA NA P. adenanthus Meyer. Root
92. Butter Bean , Curry Bean , Lima kidney Bean Hursumhulle pullie Phaseolus lunatus Linn. Pulse
93. Harrimung , Mung Mung , Green Gram P . mungo Pulse
94. Dord , Mung , Urid , Urud , Thikiri Black Gram , Green Gram , Mung Pulse P. radiatus Linn. Pulse , root and seeds
95. Mugani , Mugawana , Rakhal Kalai , Trianguli 3- Lobed kidney bean , Wild kidney bean P. trilobus Ait . Leaves
Bakla , Loba French Bean , Kidney Bean P.vulagris Linn. Flour and bean
97. Baramattar , Battanichola , Golmattar . Garden pea , Blue pea. Pisum sativum Linn . Seed and peas
98 . Kanja , Karanj , Karanjaka , Kirmal Indian Beech Pongamia glabra Vent . Root , oil , leaves , seeds and bark
99. NA NA Pseudarthria viscida W. and A. Whole plant
100. Babachi , Babchi NA Psoralea corylifolia Linn Seeds and fruit
101. NA Andaman Redwood Pterocarpus indicus Wild Fruit , wood and leaves
102. Banda , Bija , Bijasal , Paisar Bijasal , Indian kino tree . P. marsupium Roxb . Gum , bark and leaves
103. Lalchandan Ragatchandan Red Sandal Wood , Red Sanders , Ruby wood . P. santalinus Linn . fil . Wood and legume
104. Badar,Bankumra, Dedarikand , Pona , Sarrar , Siali , Surur NA Pueraria tuberosa DC. Root
105. Chiri-matio kalta NA Rhynchosia minima DC. Leaves
106. Brihatchakramed Dhumchee hemp Sesbania aculeate Poir. Seeds
107. Dhandiain Jaint , Jaint , Jait , Janjhan , Jayanti , Rasin , Jhijan Egyptian Sesban Sesbania aegyptiaca Poir. Seeds , Leaves and Root
108. Agasti , Agust , Agusta , Bak , Basna , Hatiya NA S. grandiflora Pers . Root, bark, leaves and flowers
109. NA NA Sophora tomentosa Linn. Seeds , leaves and roots
110. Bando , Maula , Chihut lar NA Spatholobus roxburghii Benth . Bark
Jetimad NA Taverniera cuneifolia Arn . Leaves
112. Bishoni NA Tephrosia petrosa Blatter and Hallberg . Leaves
113. Sarphoka , Sarphonka , Sarphuka Wild indigo T. purpurea Pers. Root and whole plant
114. NA NA Tephrosia villosa Pers . Leaves
115. Mashnoi NA Teramnus labialis Spreng . Fruit
116. Khulbi , Lassan , Methi , Muthi , Sag methi Fenugreek , Greek Hayes . Trigonella Foenum –graecum Linn. Seeds and leaves
117. NA NA T.occulta Del . Seeds
118. Chini NA T. polycerata Linn . Seeds
119. Daula , Davada , Pithauni , Pitvan , Pithavana . NA Uraria lagopoides DC. Whole plant
120. Dabra , Pitvan , Prishniparni , Prishtparni NA Uraria picta Desv . Fruit , root , leaves and whole plant
121. Anhuri , Bakla Broad Bean , field bean , Garden bean Vicia faba Linn. Shoot and beans
122. Akra , Ankra Common Vetch , Tare , Vetch Vicia sativa Linn. Seed
123. Bora , Chowli , Lobia , Ransi , Rausa , Rawas , Rianish , Sonta Asparagus Bean , Blackeye Pea , Chinese Bean , Chowlee , Cow pea,Cuba bean , Rice bean , Small fruited bean . Vigna catiang Walp. Pulse and seeds
124. NA NA Zornia diphylla Pers. Root and whole plant
Butea monosperma O Kuntze.‘Palas’ (Paplionaceae ) :- The Oraon and Korwa tribes of Madhya Pradesh make the root decoction and used it in urinary troubles . The bark decoction is used in loose motions. Andh , Bhil , Gond, Halba , Kokna , Korku and Malhar tribes of Khandala region in Maharashtra use its flowers for urinary complaints . Fresh or dried flowers are crushed and mixed with water . One cup of extract is given for proper urination. Santals of Santal pargana in Bihar use its roots for tuberculosis. It is also known as depurative , aphrodisiac , astringent , anthelmintic , rubifacient , antidote to snake bite and it is also used for diarrhoea , piles , tumours , dysentery and herpes .
31. Flemingia chappar Ham. ‘Salpan’ (Papilionaceae):- In Bihar the people of santhal tribes use 1 to 2 drops of juice extracted from pressed seeds put in the eyes as a remedy in eye troubles and to remove cataract . In Madhya Pradesh this plant is also known as ‘Galphule’, in Gamharia (Raigarh) of Madhya Pradesh, the leaf juice mixed with seven drops of mustard oil and a little amount of jaggery is used in eye pain by the tribal people .
Flemingia congesta Roxb. ‘Mahadeokama’ ( Papilionaceae ) :- In Gamharia (Raigarh) of Madhya Pradesh , the root decoction 50 ml. is administered orally three times daily in spermatorrhoea by the tribal people.
33. Indigofera cassiodies Rotle ex DC ‘Jhilla’ ( Papilionaceae ) The Kusmi tribal people of Madhya Pradesh use the root of the plant powdered with bark of Tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. ) and half teaspoonful powder prescribed to women for preventing conception ( Jain and Singh , 1997 ) .
34. Indigofera linnaei Ali. ‘Runkhadi’ (Papilionaceae) Inhabitants of Gujrat and South East Rajasthan take about 10 gm. fresh juice of whole plant , mixed with curd and give once a day (or if needed twice) to cure diarrhea . Rice with such curd should be taken as a diet during treatment and no sugar or salt should be used in the diet (Audichya, et al., 1983).
2. Alysicarpus vaginalis Linn. DC. ‘Davai’ ( Papilionaceae ) It is known for cough . Santhals of Santhal Pargana in Bihar use its root as an antifertility agent ( Goel et al. , 1984 ) .
3. Atylosia scarabaeoides Benth. ‘Banherwa’ (Papilionaceae) :- In Raigarh (Aeppu) of Madhya Pradesh the tribal people use the plant decoction (100 ml.) as a tonic after delivery . The fresh leaf paste is applied on swellings of leg. The pod are also eaten for this purpose. In Bihar tribal people make plant or root into a paste and mix with coconut oil to apply on head for fifteen days to check falling hairs to cure baldness (Tarafdar and Chaudhari, 1997 ).
4. Atylosia volubilis Blanco. ‘Gamble’ ( Papilionaceae ) :- Inhabitants of Orissa use its root for mumps . The root is made into a paste and applied locally ( Saxena et al. , 1981 ) .
5. Clitoria ternatea Linn. ‘Aparajit’ (Papilionaceae) :- Inhabitants of Dhasan valley in Bundelkhand region of Utter Pradesh apply the powdered root externally for the treatment of gotire . In India it is also useed as cathartic , diuretic and antidote against snake bite . It is also useful against leprosy ( Saxena and Vyas , 1983 ) .
6. Crotolaria alata Ham. ‘Gunghra’ ( Papilionaceae ) :- In Gamharia (Raigarh) of Madhya Pradesh the Oraon tribal people use to rub the paste of the whole plant on the body for curing joints and muscular pains . The root decoction 50 ml. is used 5 times daily in scorpion stings and in snake bite ( Maheshwari, Painuli, Diwivedi, 1997 ).
7. Crotolaria albida Heyne. ‘Banmethi’ ( Papilionaceae ) :- The tribes of Ambikapur in Madhya Pradesh use give about 2 gm.powdered root twice a day to a victim of snake bite (Jain and Singh, 1997).
8. Crotolaria bialata Heyne.‘ Murgijori’ (Papilionaceae) :- The Kurmi Mahato tribes of Bihar use root paste three times for nine days in discharge of blood with urine (Tarafdar and Choudhari, 1997).
9. Crotolaria pallida Dry. Syn. C.Striata DC. ‘Thankur’ Papilionaceae) :- Mikirs of Assam take about 20 ml. extract of leaves in early morning to kill intestinal worms ( Jain and Borthakur, 1980 ).
10. Crotolaria semialata Linn. ‘Gulabi’(Papilionaceae) :- The Kurmi tribes of Madhya Pradesh use about half tea spoon powdered root for malarial fever (Jain and Singh, 1997).
11. Crotolaria sericea Retz ‘Ghurhiti’ (Papilionaceae):- The tribes of Ambikapur , use the roots of this plant and Byttneria herbaceae Roxb.They are powdered and 2 gm. of this powder is used for curing gonorrhoea (Jain and Singh, 1997).
12. Crotolaria spectabilis Retz ‘Sonokai’(Papilionaceae) :-In Bihar Oraon and Khond tribes used plant paste in rheumatism twice daily for fifteen days . The patient should take it with an empty stomach one hour before his meal . Another method of tribal use is the fresh plant swept over the body of a patient three times daily for fifteen days (Tarafdar and Chaudhari, 1997).
13. Crotolaria prostrata Rottl. ‘Bilaiban’ (Papilionaceae):-Oraon and Korwa tribes of Madhya Pradesh made the twigs into pieces and used in nabhi treatment .
14. Desmodium gyroides (Lamk.) DC. ( Papilionaceae ) :- Inhabitants of Hazaribagh district of Bihar use its whole plant to promote conceptions . The plant is made into paste with 4 leaves of Ocimum sanctum ( scared Tulsi ) , put in a banana and given to a lady for conception ( Tarafdar , 1983 ) .
15. Desmodium motorium DC. ‘Jugni’ (Papilionaceae):- . In Gamharia (Raigarh) of Madhya Pradesh the leaves are used for hypnotizing tribal women in the treatment of diseases by the tribal people.
28. Desmodium pulchellum Benth. ‘Jat salpar’ (Papilionaceae):- In Bihar , Bihar tribal people made root into a paste and mixed with sugar candy . This is prescribed to a patient suffering from burning sensation in the abdomen or chest once in the morning on an empty stomach and another dose in the evening. (Tarafdar and Chaudhri, 1997).
29. Desmodium triflorum DC. ‘Ban’ (Papilionaceae):- In Basantpur (Surguja) of Madhya Pradesh , the plant decoction 30ml. is used three times daily in wormicide by the tribal people .