Formulating Learning Styles-based Objectives/Outcomes (LSBO) The contents here are taken from my book “ Developing a Learning Styles-Based Instructional Design.” FIER I.D. follows the “learner-centered” principle. Thus, the students’ learning styles is its major consideration. In order to formulate the learning-style based objectives (LSBO) of the course or specific outcomes (Fig. 16), one should consider first the interactive teaching and learning processes. The figure shows the interrelatedness of the objectives or specific outcomes, teaching styles, learning styles and assessments. All these four (4) important components are connected with each other similar to Fink’s relational, integrated model (2003). Similar to Spady’s outcome-based education, in which its starting point is “a clear picture of what is important for students to be able to do, then organizing the curriculum, instruction, and assessment to make sure learning ultimately happens” ( Anderson, et al, 2005,p.256), the GO’s (general outcomes) in FIER is the main focus in order to be globally competitive. At the course level FIER agrees with Spady’s (cited in LiXun, n.d.) idea that the focus should be on “clear learning results that we want students to demonstrate at the end of significant learning experiences…and… are actions and performances that embody and reflect learner competence in using content, information, ideas, and tools successfully.” (p. 3) so that the LSBO’s should be stated in a manner that is “clear learning results that are ‘achievable and assessable’” (Spady; Tavner, 2005 cited in LiXun, n.d.). However, in the process of formulating or writing statements for course specific outcomes, FIER starts with the learning styles of the students matching it with the teaching styles of the teachers guided with the general outcomes. Since learning styles are natural conditions of the child, following Rousseau’s idea on education, FIER fosters an “education that would harmonize with the ‘natural conditions of the child’s growth” Ulich, 1950 p.219, as cited in Ragan, Smith & Curda, n.d., p.385); and that of Pestalozzi’s idea on “education that followed the ‘road of nature’ ” (Ulich, 1950 p.260 as cited in Ragan, Smith & Curda, n.d. p. 385). This makes FIER a learner-centered instructional design that focuses on the general outcomes of the global and local educational agencies or institutions in order to become competitive locally and globally. What to do in formulating or writing statements of learning styles-based objectives? Stages of LSBO Preparation Preparation stage: Prepare/secure the following from literature: 1. Learning taxonomy, e.g. Bloom’s Taxonomy 2. Felder-Silverman’s Models of Learning & Teaching Styles 3. Learning Style profile of the students through ILS 4. Decide the learning Domain e.g. Acids and Bases 5. Decide the sub-learning domains e.g. Physical properties of acids & bases Progress Stage Do the following: [1]. From the learning style profile, decide what learning styles you wish to start. Give emphasis on the dominant LS of the students. [2]. Decide the teaching styles (TS) to match with LS in which learning can happen that can eventually, be “exhibited visibly by the learners” (Spady’s definition of outcomes, Anderson et al., 2005, p.257). In deciding which teaching style to choose, answer each of the following guide questions that define the teaching style you want to adapt (Felder & Silverman, 1988, p. 675): [a]. For Perception Dimension LS, adapt the Content TS: What type of information would you want to emphasize? Concrete or abstract? Concrete information for Sensing TS; Abstract information for Intuitive TS. [b]. For the Input Dimension LS, adapt the Presentation TS: What mode of presentation would you want to choose? Visual or verbal? Visual presentation for Visual TS. Verbal presentation for Verbal TS. [c]. For Processing Dimension L.S, adapt the Student Participation TS: What mode of student participation would you want to facilitate during the presentation of information? Active or reflective? Active processing for Active TS. Reflective processing for Reflective TS. [d]. For the Understanding Dimension L.S., adapt the Perspective TS: What type of perspective are you going to provide in your presentation? Sequential or Global? Sequential perspective: Sequential TS. Global perspective: Global TS. Concluding Stage Write the LSBO* as shown in the examples below: [1.] Perception Dimension Sample Objectives: Sensing L.S.: Tell the taste of a dilute acid and dilute base. (on property as to taste) Intuitive l.S.: Explain why hydrochloric acid reacts faster than acetic acid with aluminum shavings. (on chemical property: Reaction of strong and weak acids on metals) [2.] Input Dimension Sample objectives: Visual: Identify the item that has acidic property from the picture shown. (show test tubes, each with solutions that are acidic, basic, neutral solution with phenolphthalein indicator)- (on property as to action with acid-base indicator) Verbal: Identify the item that has acidic property from the list given.(written names and descriptions of color of the acid-base indicator used on a test paper) [3.] Processing Dimension Sample Objectives: (on chemical property: neutralization) Reflective L.S.: Explain why magnesium hydroxide is a component of antacid. Active L.S.: Identify commercial food products that should be avoided by a person suffering from hyperacidity(by group). [4.] Understanding Dimension Sample Objectives: Sequential L.S.: Solve ….. (on problem: dilution of acids and bases)…. following a standard procedure. Global: Propose a solution to a …(on problem: how to concentrate and dilute, acids and bases). *Note: Verbs used in the LSBO may vary depending on the target learning style and level of learning (see Bloom’s taxonomy). Samples of LSBO- Based Students’ Activity Now that the LSBO has been formulated, the next thing to do is to formulate or select the student’s activity as shown in the examples below. Make sure that the activity produces an output that is observable and measurable. Prepare or Secure from literature different student activities. Use them as pattern or bases in coming up your own formulated student’s activities. Next page are examples of students’ activities based on LSBO. The components are learning style (LS), Teaching style (TS), learning styles-based objective/outcome (LSBO), and Activity. LS: Sensing TS: Content, sensing LSBO: Tell the taste of dilute acids and dilute base. Activity: Write an observation after tasting dilute acid and dilute base. LS: Intuitive TS: Content, intuitive LSBO: Explain why hydrochloric acid reacts faster than acetic acid with aluminum shavings. (chemical property: Reaction strong and weak acids on metals). Activity: Write an explanation of the phenomenon observed while mixing same amount of aluminum shavings with the same concentration of hydrochloric acid and acetic acid in separate test tubes. LS: Visual TS: Presentation, visual LSBO: Identify the items that have acidic property from the given test tubes, each with solutions that are either acidic or basic with phenolphthalein indicator)- (property as to action with acid-base indicator) Activity: Make a table by grouping all items that are acidic, and basic in separate columns. LS: Verbal TS: Presentation. verbal LSBO: Identify the item that has acidic property from the list given.(written names and descriptions of color of the acid-base indicator used on a test paper). Activity: Write down the items that have acidic property from the given list. LS: Reflective TS: Student Participation, Reflective LSBO: Explain why magnesium hydroxide is a component of antacid. Activity: Write an explanation why magnesium hydroxide is a component of antacid based from what you previously learn about acids and bases. LS: Active TS: Student Participation, Active LSBO: Identify commercial food products that should be avoided by a person suffering from hyperacidity. Activity: By group, take a collection of commercial food labels to show why the food product should be avoided by a person suffering from hyperacidity. LS: Sequential TS: Perspective, Sequential LSBO: Solve ….. (problem: dilution of acids and bases)…. following a standard procedure. Activity: Write a step by step solution to solve a given dilution problem. LS: Global TS: Perspective, Global LSBO: Propose an new experiment procedure that will exhibit the properties of acids and bases. Activity: Design an experiment on properties of acids and bases. Assessment Select appropriate assessment tools and methods from literature or you may design your own assessment tools based on the procedures, theories and principles of education you gathered from literature.