Accountability plays a very important role in the realization of educational aims, goals, and objectives. Thus recognizing the “Who is/are” in its formation and/or its implementation is important. They are the local and international educational agencies, the school administrators, the teachers, support staff, and the learners. They are the key players responsible and accountable in carrying out each of the components in the teaching and learning processes, specifically, in the formulation of the general and specific outcomes; in providing the right learning situation and learning experiences; in the evaluation of teaching and learning processes; and in the development and improvement necessary to achieve the learning outcomes. Together, they form an integrated whole accountable for the realization of the desired educational outcomes. Gronlund (1974) classifies educational accountability program into product accountability, process accountability and experimental accountability. According to Grolund (1974):

Product accountability refers to the belief that in order for learning to be best improved, the teachers should be held responsible for the amount of learning achieved by the students; process accountability is the belief that holding the teacher responsible for using professionally sound methods may result to a maximum learning with fewer negative effects; and experimental accountability is the belief that the school staff is responsible for systematically trying out and evaluating alternative methods and improving student’s learning.”(p.29-30)

Indeed the attention and support of the administrators/supervisors are very much needed. According to Aquino (1988, p.39), it is not enough and it is not fair to let the teacher tackle by herself the heavy burden and complex task of bringing about effective teaching”. Haworth (1977) states “administrative efforts to support faculty almost always helped to enhance student’s learning” (p.720).

Furthermore, McIntyre (1974, as cited in Aquino, 1988, p. 498)) states, “instruction is a central subsystem of the total educational system, and administering an improving the instructional program is an important domain of responsibility for school administrators.”

Though school administrators have great roles in attaining effective teaching, according to Rubin (1972, as cited in Aquino, 1988, p. 550)) “the impact of the teacher on the curriculum is, and always be considerable”, for it is the teacher who translates the curriculum into effective learning experiences. However, it can be said according to Aquino (1988) that if a student did not learn, the teacher did not teach well, and if the teacher did not teach well, the supervisor did not supervise well. 

The efforts of the support staff in the school system are of importance in creating a supportive and positive atmosphere that is conducive to learning. According to Ornstein (1990, p.698), “teachers to be effective, need a supportive and positive atmosphere”. On experimental accountability, according to Gronlund (1974) the school staff is responsible for systematically trying out and evaluating alternative methods of improving student’s learning.

In the study of Tabinas’s (2004) on Assessment of Chemistry Teaching: Public High Schools, Fourth District of Leyte, the teachers identified unsupportive facilitative staff to “fairly affect” their teaching among other factors, 92% of the teachers “strongly suggested” that improving the general facilities of the school is one of the solutions that can minimize their encountered difficulty in teaching. It follows that the help of the support staff in the maintenance of the school facilities is important.

Thus, effective teaching is a cooperative process and its components are inter-related and should be integrated. Shall we adhere to John Dickinson's motto: together we stand, divided we fall?

Who’s to blame?


Aquino G.V. (1988). Principles and Methods of Effective Teaching. Manila: National Book Store Inc.

Gronlund, Norman E. (1974). Individualizing Classroom Instruction. New York:

Mcmillan Publishing,

Haworth, C. (1997). Educational Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Ornstein, A. (1990). Strategies of Effective Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice hall

Tabinas, Camilo (2004). Chemistry Teaching in Public High Schools in Leyte, Fourth

            District.USC Graduate Journal, XX(2), 37-45.