Fake Banner
The Cell Membrane And The Effect Of Omega Fatty Acids On Red Blood Cells

The cell membrane at first may seem a simple device, but it is in fact a very complex machine....

Ethics And The Use Of Animal Models

IntroductionThe use of non-human animal models has allowed the fast progression of scientific discovery...

Comparison and contrast of DNA Staining methods for possible use in secondary school biology programs

Abstract:  Four types of DNA stains were evaluated based on safety, ease of use, cost, and resolution...

User picture.
picture for Andrea Kuszewski
Keith ZimmermanRSS Feed of this column.

Keith holds a bachelor of arts degree in biochemistry and has research experience in electrophysiology studies with neuroreceptors. He is also interested in medical chemistry, cell biology, analytical... Read More »


Hummingbirds require an enormous amount of energy to beat their wings fast enough to hover and maneuver. In many ways they appear to retain  some of the flight patters of insects, but they have an enormous amount of mass in comparison. Many changes in cell structure must occur to allow this high metabolism rate, and most specifically in mitochondria to be able to provide such large quantities of energy.

Quite a few changes in cell morphology and physiology might be expected to help deal with these large metabolism rates. Greater oxygen and carbon dioxide diffusion rates in the lungs would speed the movement of these gasses, as well as increased cardiac output and increase in capillary density.