**Electrostatic propulsion system concept**

## http://knol.google.com/k/alex-belov/electrostatic-propulsion-system-concept/1xmqm1l0s4ys/15#

This electrostatic propulsion concept based on flow of electrons inside vacuum tube.

This system has two electrostatic generators. Theirs electrostatic fields make a flow of electrons inside vacuum tube. This system has two flows of electrons. First main flow of electrons has a spiral path(long path) where electrons have very high value of velocity (close to light speed). Another return flow has straight line path(short path) where electrons have low value of velocity. These flows of electrons have identical amount of electrons during certain period of time. Base on mass relativity, the electrons withhigh value of velocity have bigger value of mass than electrons with low value of velocity. The mass difference(i.e. magnitude force difference) between two flows of electrons should move electrostatic propulsion system center of mass into opposite direction of main flow of electrons with spiral path(long path).

(This concept would be acceptable for ions too. However, the vacuum tube should be redesigned for ions variable velocity circular motion. This tube is shown on diagram below).

This is NOT REACTION DRIVE. The idea is move COM of system on opposite direction of main flow of electrons. I.E. CHANGE POSITION OF SYSTEM ON INTER-SPACE (UNIVERSE). The electrons will circulate inside vacuum tube with different velocity. (Thanks to Jerry Volland) The low velocity flow of electrons could be a wire. In this case, the high velocity flow of electrons could be straight path inside vacuum tube.

where Pe - momentum of electrons, Ps - momentum of spaceship, n - quantity of electrons, me - mass of electron, v1 - velocity of return flow of electrons, v2 - velocity of main flow of electrons, c - light velocity ,dme - mass difference of two flows of electrons, Ve - Velocity of main flow of electrons inside vacuum tube, ms - mass of spaceship, Vs - velocity of spaceship

If system has k electrons per layer and l layers of electrons inside vacuum tube then velocity of spacecraft will be:

where n - quantity of all electrons traveling inside vacuum tube, k - electrons per layer, l - quantity of layers of electrons, me - mass difference of two flows of electrons, Ve - Velocity of main flow of electrons inside vacuum tube, ms - mass of spaceship, Vs - velocity of spaceship

It means the spacecraft velocity depends on vacuum tube geometry.

The acceleration of spacecraft depends on density of flow of electrons inside vacuum tube.

**Calculations for electrons**

"Simple calculations about COM of system drifting (if electrons move into one direction)

(Thanks to GaryH from Physics_Frontier yahoo group)

I = 10,000 Amperes, that's 10^4/1.602*10^ -19 electrons per second, or

6.24*10^22 electrons/second.

The mass flow is dm/dt = 6.24*10^22*9. 11x10^-31 kg/sec = 5.68x10^-8 kg/sec

For M = 1 kg, D = 10 m, dx/dt = (D/M)*dm/dt = 10*5.68*10^- 8 = 5.68*10^-7 m/sec.

The time to move 10 meters is T = 10/5.68*10^- 7 = 1.76*10^7 sec.

There are 31,700,000 seconds/year, so T = 0.555 years."

To achieve same result for two flows system, instead of mass of electron should be used mass difference of electrons between two flows now. To reach this effect, system should increase mass of electron twice on main flow. i.e. velocity of electron on main flow should be:

Too big. Need a HUGE power for this.

**Calculations for ions**

Mass of ions (argon for example) more heaviest than mass of electron. The difference of mass of ions between main and return flows could be in range (10e-8 to 10e-4).

where c- speed of light, v1 - velocity of particle on return flow, v2 - velocity of particle on main flow, mi-mass of ion, dmi-effective mass change, n- rate of mass change.

Simplified equation for velocity of main flow of ions is:

where c- speed of light, v - velocity of particle, n- rate of mass change.

Mass of main flow inside tube m(i_f)= 0.1kg/s

Rate of mass change n= 1e-6

Effective mass difference between 2 flows dm=1e-7kg

Velocity v of ions on main flow should be:

Length of main flow L= 10m

Mass of spacecraft Ms=1kg

Velocity of spacecraft:

The spacecraft will change it's own position (10 meters distance) in:

**Another version how to drift COM of isolated system**

The COM drifting can be achieved in other way.

This figure shows isolated system with additional electromagnetic field.

This system design use electrons as a workable particles.

This figure shows the principles of COM of system drifting.

The particle(electrons) have low velocity inside the system while the circulates inside a wire. In this time, these particles have a stationary mass inside isolated system.

Inside vacuum tube, this particles start move with velocity lose to speed of light. The electromagnetic field above vacuum tube will magnitude the particles with relativistic mass. Base on Newtons third law the system will cause same force with opposite direction during particles magnitude action. However particles with velocity close to speed of light have relativistic mass bigger than low velocities particles with stationary mass. This means the COM of isolated system will drift into one particular direction.

Email: **abelov0927@gmail.com**

**Electrostatic propulsion system concept**

This electrostatic propulsion concept based on flow of electrons inside vacuum tube.

This system has two electrostatic generators. Theirs electrostatic fields make a flow of electrons inside vacuum tube. This system has two flows of electrons. First main flow of electrons has a spiral path(long path) where electrons have very high value of velocity (close to light speed). Another return flow has straight line path(short path) where electrons have low value of velocity. These flows of electrons have identical amount of electrons during certain period of time. Base on mass relativity, the electrons withhigh value of velocity have bigger value of mass than electrons with low value of velocity. The mass difference(i.e. magnitude force difference) between two flows of electrons should move electrostatic propulsion system center of mass into opposite direction of main flow of electrons with spiral path(long path).

(This concept would be acceptable for ions too. However, the vacuum tube should be redesigned for ions variable velocity circular motion. This tube is shown on diagram below).

This is NOT REACTION DRIVE. The idea is move COM of system on opposite direction of main flow of electrons. I.E. CHANGE POSITION OF SYSTEM ON INTER-SPACE (UNIVERSE). The electrons will circulate inside vacuum tube with different velocity. (Thanks to Jerry Volland) The low velocity flow of electrons could be a wire. In this case, the high velocity flow of electrons could be straight path inside vacuum tube.

where Pe - momentum of electrons, Ps - momentum of spaceship, n - quantity of electrons, me - mass of electron, v1 - velocity of return flow of electrons, v2 - velocity of main flow of electrons, c - light velocity ,dme - mass difference of two flows of electrons, Ve - Velocity of main flow of electrons inside vacuum tube, ms - mass of spaceship, Vs - velocity of spaceship

If system has k electrons per layer and l layers of electrons inside vacuum tube then velocity of spacecraft will be:

where n - quantity of all electrons traveling inside vacuum tube, k - electrons per layer, l - quantity of layers of electrons, me - mass difference of two flows of electrons, Ve - Velocity of main flow of electrons inside vacuum tube, ms - mass of spaceship, Vs - velocity of spaceship

It means the spacecraft velocity depends on vacuum tube geometry.

The acceleration of spacecraft depends on density of flow of electrons inside vacuum tube.

**Calculations for electrons**

"Simple calculations about COM of system drifting (if electrons move into one direction)

(Thanks to GaryH from Physics_Frontier yahoo group)

I = 10,000 Amperes, that's 10^4/1.602*10^ -19 electrons per second, or

6.24*10^22 electrons/second.

The mass flow is dm/dt = 6.24*10^22*9. 11x10^-31 kg/sec = 5.68x10^-8 kg/sec

For M = 1 kg, D = 10 m, dx/dt = (D/M)*dm/dt = 10*5.68*10^- 8 = 5.68*10^-7 m/sec.

The time to move 10 meters is T = 10/5.68*10^- 7 = 1.76*10^7 sec.

There are 31,700,000 seconds/year, so T = 0.555 years."

To achieve same result for two flows system, instead of mass of electron should be used mass difference of electrons between two flows now. To reach this effect, system should increase mass of electron twice on main flow. i.e. velocity of electron on main flow should be:

Too big. Need a HUGE power for this.

**Calculations for ions**

Mass of ions (argon for example) more heaviest than mass of electron. The difference of mass of ions between main and return flows could be in range (10e-8 to 10e-4).

where c- speed of light, v1 - velocity of particle on return flow, v2 - velocity of particle on main flow, mi-mass of ion, dmi-effective mass change, n- rate of mass change.

Simplified equation for velocity of main flow of ions is:

where c- speed of light, v - velocity of particle, n- rate of mass change.

Mass of main flow inside tube m(i_f)= 0.1kg/s

Rate of mass change n= 1e-6

Effective mass difference between 2 flows dm=1e-7kg

Velocity v of ions on main flow should be:

Length of main flow L= 10m

Mass of spacecraft Ms=1kg

Velocity of spacecraft:

The spacecraft will change it's own position (10 meters distance) in:

**Another version how to drift COM of isolated system**

The COM drifting can be achieved in other way.

This figure shows isolated system with additional electromagnetic field.

This system design use electrons as a workable particles.

The particle(electrons) have low velocity inside the system while the circulates inside a wire. In this time, these particles have a stationary mass inside isolated system.

Inside vacuum tube, this particles start move with velocity lose to speed of light. The electromagnetic field above vacuum tube will magnitude the particles with relativistic mass. Base on Newtons third law the system will cause same force with opposite direction during particles magnitude action. However particles with velocity close to speed of light have relativistic mass bigger than low velocities particles with stationary mass. This means the COM of isolated system will drift into one particular direction.

Email:

This system design use electrons as a workable particles.

### This figure shows the principles of COM of system drifting.

The particle(electrons) have low velocity inside the system while the circulates inside a wire. In this time, these particles have a stationary mass inside isolated system.

Inside vacuum tube, this particles start move with velocity lose to speed of light. The electromagnetic field above vacuum tube will magnitude the particles with relativistic mass. Base on Newtons third law the system will cause same force with opposite direction during particles magnitude action. However particles with velocity close to speed of light have relativistic mass bigger than low velocities particles with stationary mass. This means the COM of isolated system will drift into one particular direction.

Email:

**abelov0927@gmail.com**
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