BIODIVERSITY OF INDIAN DESERT Amit Kotia and Ashwani Kumar Biotechnology Lab, Department of Botany University of Rajasthan, Jaipur – 302004 INDIA ABSTRACT The state of Rajasthan is situated between 23º3’ and 30º12’ N latitude and 69º30’ and 78º17’ E longitude . The total land area of the state is about 3,24,239 km² , out of which about 1,98,100 km² is arid and rest is semi arid. The physical features are characterized mainly by the Aravallis and to the some extent by the vindhyan formation, and the Deccan trap. A major portion of western Rajasthan has desert soils and sandy plain. Sand dunes occupy a greater part of western Rajasthan ( 1,20, 983 km²). The soils of the desert plains are loamy sand to loam and eastern part has alluvial soil which support good forests and agricultural crop. Occurrence of saline soils with pH up to 9.0 is a common feature in sandy area of Rajasthan. The average annual rainfall in the state is 525-675 mm, and the annual precipitation in different tract of Rajasthan varies from 13 mm to 1766 mm. Out of the total area , forests, cover only about 37,638 km² , and are rich in biodiversity. Rajasthan is rich in biodiversity which has great economic value. Characterization of different plant species of economic value was undertaken (Table, 1-6). INTRODUCTION Out of the total land area of Rajasthan , forest covers only about 37,638 Km² i.e. 11%, this forest includes roughly 7% of depleted and denuded forests. Biodiversity of Rajasthan is related with the Aravalli hills. Anogeissus pendula Edgew. forests cover more than half of the total forest area in the state. These forests occur on a variety of rock formations on the Aravalli hills. A. pendula Edgew. is also found in the southern region of Vindhyan formations. It is able to grow on stony, impoverished and shallow soils, and also on a range of sandy loams to clay loam. A. pendula Edgew forms pure stands. It is commonly associated with Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Acacia leucophloea Willd., Bauhinia racemosa Lam. And Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. In parts of Jaipur, Ajmer and Jodhpur districts. Acacia Senegal Willd. is common. On the upper slopes , the main species are replaced by Sterculia urens Roxb., Boswellia serrata Roxb. And Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Herrill. and along the foothills by Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. The other species found are Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wt. & Arn., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Maytens emerginata (Willd.) D. Hou, Rhus mysurensis Heyne, Securinga leucopyrus (Willd.) Muell. Arg., Grewia flavescens Jurs., G. tenas (Forsk.) Fiori and Lycium barbarum Linn. ( Roy & Kumar , 1987). Acacia catechu Willd. forests are common in the south-eastern regions. e.g. Baran, Jhalawar, Kota, Tonk , Chittorgarh and Alwar. The area under this type is roughly 3% of the total forest area. (Roy & Kumar , 1995; Kumar & Roy 1996.) The Rajasthan desert has extensive areas of saline soil which can be effectively utilized for biomass production. Notable among the species, including halopytes, which can be raised in this area include Tamarix troupii Hole, Acacia nilotica (L.) Del., Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br., Capparis deciduas (Forsk.) Edgew, Salvadora oleoides Decne., Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stuntz. These can be raised on soils with lower levels of salinity. Some of the grasses which can be grown are Aeluropus logopoides (L.) Trin. ex Thw., Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) P. Beauv., Eleusine compressa (Forsk.) Ascheros. and Schweing and Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R.Br. (Kumar , 1987.) The vast sandy tract which are distributed in the Western and Northern plains of the state, forms the dunes and the plain. The dunes are of two type - the embryonic, and the stabilized ones. There is no vegetation on the embryonic dunes except some ephemerals like Gisekia pharnaceoides, Euphorbia prostrata, Mollugo cerviana, Polycarpaea corymbosa and others which are the pioneers. When the embryonic dunes are gradually stabilized due to the growth of sand binders like Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Calotropis procera, Aerva tomentosa, Saccharam munja, and others , they provide suitable habitat for the growth of some annual grasses e.g. species of Eragostis, Aristida, etc., Plant speices like Convolvulus, Heliotropium, Indigofera, Tephrosia, Polygala, and perennials like Echinops echinatus, Crotalaria medicagenia , and Shrub like Acacia jacqumontii. Besides this Trianthema, Chenopodium, Salsola, Suaeda plants are very common in saline regions of Rajasthan. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The plant species were collected from different site of state like Ajmer, Churu, Jhunjhunu, Dausa, Sikar, and mainly Jaipur district. Identification of these plant species was done using standard monograph and their local flora ( Sharma , 1976; Bhandari, 1978). The survey of these sites was carried out over a period of two years (1999-2000). The plant specimens have been deposited in the herbarium of Botany Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. OBSERVATION : The following plant species have been recorded from different area of the state in different season. This plant biodiversity have lots of economic value. Some of the plants are listed in the following table. They include different categories like, plants yielding Fibers, Tannins, Dyes, Gum and Resins, Extraction & Distillation products, plants for lac worm hosts, Plant for Silkworm hosts, Biri leaves, Soap Substitutes etc. A. Trees: Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. ; Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Del. ; Acacia senegal (Linn.) Willd. ; Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne.(Figure 1); Azadirachta indica A. Juss.; Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.; Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) Delile.; Dichrostachys cinerea (Linn.) Wight. et Arn.; Ficus benghalensis Linn.; Ficus religiosa Linn.; Holoptelea integrifolia Planch.; Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce.; Prosopis juliflora (Swartz.) DC. ; Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seeman..; Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.; Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding-Hou. Phoenix sylvestris (Linn.) Roxb.; Riccinus communis Linn.; Terminalia alata Heyne ; Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight. & Ara.; Cassia fistula Linn.; Cassia auriculata Linn; . Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst.; Pithecellobium dulce Benth.; Acacia catechu Willd.; Zizyphus glaberrima Santapau.; Terminalia bellirica Roxb.; Emblica officinalis Gaertn.; Anogeissus pendula Edgew.; Anogeissus latifolia Wall.; Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce.; Garuga pinnata Roxb.; Madhuca indica Gmel.; Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.; Salvadora oleoides Decne.; Salvadora persica Linn.; Jatropha curcas Linn.; Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile.; Sapindus emarginatus Vahl.; Mimusops elengi Linn.; Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa.; Bauhinia racemosa Lamk.; Boswellia serrata Roxb.; Bombax ceiba Linn.; Buchnania latifolia Roxb.; Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub.; Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merril.; Moringa oleifera Lam.; Mangifera indica Linn.; Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) J. Sinclair; Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.; Sterculia urens Roxb.; Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.; Wrightia tinctoria R.Br.; Morinda tinctoria Roxb.; Helicteres isora Linn.; Cordia gharf (Farsk.) Her. & Asch.; Erythrina suberosa Roxb.; Phoenix sylvestre Roxb.; Cordia oblique Willd. Ficus religiosa Linn.; Morus alba Linn.; Diospryos melanoxylon Roxb.; Diospryos tomentosa Roxb.; Diospryos montana Roxb.; Santalum album Linn. B. Shrubs: Carissa carandas Linn; Punica granatum Linn.; Lawsonia inermis Linn.;Rhus mysurensis Heyne.; Mallotus philiphinensis Muell. – Arg.; Capparis deciduas (Forsk.) Edgew.; Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.; Sida cordifolia Linn. ; Waltheria indica Linn.; Commiphara wightii (Arn.) Bhandari.; Hibiscus ovalifolius Vahl.; Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Arn.; Acacia jacqumontii Benth.; Crotalaria burhia Buch.-Ham. ex Benth.; Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Fiori.; Crotalaria medicaginia Lamk.; Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook.; Xanthium strumarium Linn.; Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br.; Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forsk.) Decne.; Sericostoma pauciflorum Stocks.; Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal.; Lantana indica Roxb.; Aerva tomentosa (Burm. f.) Juss.; Salsola baryosoma ( S.) Dandy.; Suaeda maritima (Linn.) Dumort. C. Perennial herbs : Tephrosia hamiltonii Drumm.; Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers.; Farsetia hamiltonii Royle.; Indigofera linnaei Ali.; Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.; Zaleya govindia (Buch-Ham. ex G. Don) N.C. Nair.; Borreria articularis (Linn.) F.N. Will..; Echinops echinatus Roxb.; Launaea resedifolia (Linn.) Druce.; Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Rammyya et Rajgopal.; Oligochaeta ramose (Roxb.) Wagenitz.; Pulicaria crispa Sch.-Bip.; Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) Don.; Convolvulus microphyllous Sieb. ex Spreng.; Datura metal Linn. ; Solanum nigrum Linn.; Solanum surattense Burm.; Lepidagathis trinervis Wall. ex Nees.(Figure, 2); Boerhavia diffusa Linn.; Achyranthes aspera Linn.; Amaranthus caudatus Linn.; Pupalia lappacea (Linn.) Juss.; Croton bonplandianum Baill.; Euphorbia hirta Linn. D. Annual herbs : Argemone mexicana Linn.; Fumaria indica (Haussk.) Pugsley.; Sismbrium irio Linn.; Portulaca oleracea Linn.; Portulaca suffruticosa Wt.; Alysicarpus monilifer DC.; Medicago laciniata (Linn.) Mill., Melilotus indica All.; Fagonia cretica Linn.; Trigonella. polycerata Linn.; Trianthema triquetra Rottl. ex Willd.; Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (Figure 4); Artemisia scoparia Waldst et Kit.; Gnaphalium indicum Linn.; Pulicaria angustifolia DC.; Sonchus asper (Linn.) Gars.; Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less.; Anagallis arvensis Linn.; Arnebia hispidissima (Lehm.) DC.; Heliotropium ellipticum Ledeb. (Figure 3); Heliotropium marifolium Retz.; Heliotropium subulatum Hochst. ex DC.; Datura innoxia Mill.; Leucas aspera (Willd.) Spreng.; Gomphrena celosiodies Mart.; Indigofera cordifolia Heyne.; Indigofera hochstetteri Baker.; Tephrosia strigosa (Dalz.) Sant.; Ocimum canum Sims.; Chenopodium album Linn.; Chenopodium murale Linn.; Phyllanthus asperulatus Hutch. E. Ephemerals : Cleome gynandra Linn.; Cleome viscose Linn.; Polygala erioptera DC.; Polygala irregularis Boiss.; Indigofera astragalina DC.; Polycarpaea corymbosa (Linn.) Lamk.; Sida ovata Forst.; Corchorus tridens Linn.; Triumfetta pentandra A.Rich.; Tribulus terrestris Linn.; Cassia tora Linn. (Figure 6); Cassia occidentalis Linn.; Alysicarpus vaginalis ( Linn.) DC.; Indigofera linifolia (Linn.) Retz.; Indigofera sessiliflora DC.; Gisekia pharnaceoides Linn.; Mollugo cerviana (Linn.) Ser. (Figure 7); Mollugo nudicaulis Lamk.; Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff.; Blainvillea acmella (Linn.) Philipson.; Trichodesma indicum R.Br.; Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.; Physalis minima Linn.; Pedalium murex Linn.; Sesamum indicum Linn.; Martynia annua Linn.; Peristrophe bicalyculata (Retz.) Nees.; Rostellularia procumbens (Linn.) Ness.; Anisomeles indica (Linn.) Ktze. (Figure 5); Amaranthus spinosus Linn.; Digera muricata (Linn.) Mart.; Euphorbia prostrata Ait.; Commelina benghalensis Linn.; Commelina forskalaei Vahl. F. Climbers and twinners: Cocculus pendulus (Forst.) Diels.; Celastrus paniculata Willd.; Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers.; Blastania fimbristipula (Fensl.) Kotschy et Peyr.; Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.(Figure 8); Cucumis callosus (Rottl.) Cogn.; Mukia maderaspatana (Linn.) M. Roem.; Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov.; Ipomoea eriocarpa R.Br.; Ipomoea pes-tigridis Linn. Figure 8: Citrullus colosynthis (Linn.) Schrad. G. Grasses : Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) Kunth.; Cyperus arenarius Retz.; Cyperus bulbosus Vahl.; Cyperus triceps (Rottb.) Endl.; Aristida funiculata Trin. et Rupr.; Brachiaria ramose (Linn.) Stapf .; Brachiaria reptans (Linn.) Gardener et Hubb.; Cenchrus biflorus Roxb.; Cenchrus ciliaris Linn.(Figure, 9); Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. et Steud.; Chloris virgata Sw.; Dactyloctenium sindicum Boiss.; Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.; Typha elephantine Roxb.; Eragrostis ciliaris (Linn.) R.Br.; Eragrostis pilosa (Linn.) P. Beauv.; Eragrostis tremula Hochst. ex Steud.; Saccharum bengalense Retz. Figure 9: Cenchrus ciliaris Linn. Conclusion: This report based on the survey of plant Biodiversity of different sites over a period of 2 ½ year. Regular and periodical visits to different site and their seasonal appearances were also recorded ( Kotia and Kumar , 2001). Two hundred twelve species were recorded, belonging to one hundred ten genera of flowering plants. About 50 species carry medicinal importance in Ayurveda (Jain, 1968; Jain, 1991, Kotia and Kumar, 2001), some of them are used as fodders and others provide edible fruits. The rich biodiversity of Rajasthan has great potential plants having medicinal value Tannins, oils, Gums & resins, Dyes, Fibers, and other important economic uses. However their characterization is lacking. Present paper has attempted to compile available information on the availability of plant recourses having various potential. The detailed investigation on the molecular & genetic characterization of these plants is necessary to have gene pool conservation. Attempts are also underway to made a gene pool bank for the plants for further reseamles. REFERENCES: 1. Bhandari, M.M. 1978 : Flora Of Indian Desert, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, 1- 466. 2. Jain, S.K. 1968. Medicinal Plants, National Book Trust, New Delhi. 3. Jain, S.K. and Defellips, 1991 In : Medicinal Plant Of India, Reference Publication, Algonal, Michigan, U.S.A. 4. Kotia, A. and Kumar, A. 2001 : Characterization of weeds on Wastelands and their role in Eco-development. Int. J. Mendel, Vol 18 (1-2), Page 7-8. 5. Kotia, A. and Kumar, A. 2001 : Some of the common weeds of medicinal value from Rajasthan. Int. J. Mendel, Vol 18 (1-2), Page 17-18. 6. Kotia, A. and Kumar, A. 2001 : Characterization of biomass during wateland development in Semiarid region. J. of Environment and Pollution Vol. 8, No. 2, 213-216. 7. Kumar, A. 1987 – Petro Crop Resources of Rajasthan. Proceeding Bio Energy Society IVth convention & Symposium ( Bio-Energy Society of India. New Delhi) 106-111. 8. Kumar , A. & Roy , S. 1996 : Biomass resources of Semi – arid regions. Production and improvement of wood energy source. In Biomass for energy and environment ( eds : P Chartier et. al ) Elsevier science, U.K. 721-724. 9. Roy , S. & Kumar , A. 1987 : Potential of Different Tree species as sources of Biomass in Rajasthan. Proceeding Bio Energy Society IVth convention & Symposium ( Bio-Energy Society of India. New Delhi) 62-66. 10. Roy , S. & Kumar , A. 1995 : Biodiversity of Rajasthan and its energy potentials J. Environment & Pollution , 2 (3) : 105 – 109. 11. Sharma , S. 1976 : Flora of North East Rajasthan , Kalyani Publisher. New Delhi. 1-395. Table 1. Tannins yielding plants of Rajasthan : Local Name Botanical Name Family Part use Other uses Babul Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Mimosaceae Bark Medicinally, Gum Arunj Acacia leucophloea Willd. Mimosaceae Bark Fiber , Gum Sadad Terminalia alata Heyne. Combretaceae Bark Medicinally Arjuna Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight. & Ara. Combretaceae Bark Medicinally, silk worm host Amaltas Cassia fistula Linn. Caesalpiniaceae Bark Medicinally Anwal Cassia auriculata Linn. Caesalpiniaceae Bark Medicinally Godal Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merrill. Anacardiaceae Bark Gum, Resin, Dye Dansara Rhus mysurensis Heyne. Anacardiaceae Bark Fruits edible Farash Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. Tamaricaceae Bark Medicinally Jangaljalbi Pithecellobium dulce Benth. Mimosaceae Bark Timber Khair Acacia catechu Willd. Mimosaceae Bark Dye, Medicinally, Gum Ghatbor Zizyphus glaberrima Santapau. Rhamnaceae Fruit Fruit edible Baheda Terminalia bellirica Roxb. Combretaceae Fruit Medicinally Anonla Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Euphorbiaceae Fruit Fruit edible , Medicinally Dhokra Anogeissus pendula Edgew. Combretaceae Leaves Medicinally Dhawra Anogeissus latifolia Wall. Combretaceae Leaves Gum, Medicinally Karaunda Carissa carandas Linn. Apocynaceae Leaves Fruit edible Mehandi Lawsonia inermis Linn. Lytharaceae Leaves Dye, Medicinally Khejari Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce. Mimosaceae Leaves Fruit edible, Gums Karpata Garuga pinnata Roxb. Burseraceae Leaves Medicinally Table 2 : Non edible oil yielding plants of Rajasthan. Local Name Botanical Name Family Part use Other uses Arundi Riccinus communis Linn. Euphorbiacae Seed Medicinally Mahuwa Madhuca indica Gmel. Sapotaceae Seed Fruit edible Karanj Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Fabaceae Seed Medicinally Neem Azadiractha indica A.Juss. Meliaceae Seed Medicinally Tumba Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schard. Cucurbitaceae Seed Medicinally Pili-hulhul Cleome viscose Linn. Capparaceae Seed Medicinally Satyanashi Argemone maxicana Linn. Papaveraceae Seed Medicinally Pilu Salvadora oleoides Decne. Salvadoraceae Seed Medicinally Kharajal Salvadora persica Linn. Salvadoraceae Seed Medicinally Ratanjot Jatropha curcas Linn. Euphorbiaceae Seed Medicinally, Dye Hingot Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile. Simaroubaceae Seed Medicinally Aritha Sapindus emarginatus Vahl. Sapindaceae Seed Soap Substitutes Maulsiri Mimusops elengi Linn. Sapotaceae Seed Medicinally Malkangini Celastrus paniculata Willd. Celastraceae Seed Medicinally Table 3 : Gums & Resins yielding plants of Rajasthan. Local Name Botanical Name Family Other uses Babul Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd . Mimosaceae Tannin, Medicinally Kumta Acacia senegal Willd. Mimosaceae Tannin, Medicinally Baonli Acacia jacquemontii Benth.. Mimosaceae Medicinally Arunj Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. Mimosaceae Medicinally , Tannin Dhawra Anogeissus latifolia Wall. Combretaceae Taninn, Medicinally Dhokra Anogeissus pendula Edgew. Combretaceae Medicinally Beel Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa. Rutaceae Medicinally, Fruit edible Neem Azadirachta indica A.Juss. Meliaceae Oil, Medicinally Jhinjha Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. Caesalpiniaceae Medicinally Salar Boswellia serrata Roxb. Burse raceae Medicinally Semal Bombax ceiba Linn. Bombacaceae Fiber Chironji Buchnania latifolia Roxb. Anacardiaceae Seed edible Palas Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub. Fabaceae Dye, Medicinally Ganiara Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston. Cochlospermaceae Fiber, Oil Gugal Commiphara wightii (Arn.) Bhandari Burseraceae Medicinally Subabool Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Mimosaceae Firewood, Charcoal Godal Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merril. Anacardiaceae Dye, Timber, Tannin Sainjana Moringa oleifera Lam. Caesalpiniaceae Fruit edible Aam Mangifera indica Linn. Anacardiaceae Fruit edible Umb Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) J. Sinclair Anonaceae Timber Bijasal Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Fabaceae Medicinally Katria Sterculia urens Roxb. Sterculiaceae Oil, Medicinally Rohan Soymida febrifuga A. Juss. Meliaceae Medicinally Khair Acacia catechu Willd Mimosaceae Dye , Medicinally , Tannin Table 4 : Dyes yielding plants of Rajasthan Local Name Botanical Name Family Part use Other uses Khair Acacia catechu Willd. Mimosaceae Wood Tannin, Medicinally Sadad Terminalia alata Heyne. Combertaceae Bark Medicinally Maulsiri Mimusops elengi Linn. Sapotaceae Bark Fruit edible Godal Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merrill. Anacardiaceae Bark Dye, Gum, Resine Kamala Mallotus philiphinensis Muell. – Arg. Euphorbiaceae Fruit Non edible oil Palas Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub. Fabaceae Flower Medicinally, Gum Harsinghar Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. Oleaceae Flower Essential oil Khirni Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. Apocynaceae Flower Medicinally Aal Morinda tinctoria Roxb. Rubiaceae Root Medicinally Anar Punica granatum Linn. Punicaceae Root Fruit edible Mehandi Lawsonia inermis Linn. Lytharaceae Leaves Medicinally Table 5 : Fibers yielding plants of Rajasthan. Local Name Botanical Name Family Part use Other uses Palas Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub. Fabaceae Bark Dye, Medicinally Karaya Sterculia urens Roxb. Sterculiaceae Bark Gum, Resin, Mororphali Helicteres isora Linn. Sterculiaceae Bark Medicinally Sandan Ougeinia oojeinesis (Roxb.) Hochreut Fabaceae Bark Poisonous plant Kewra Pandanus tectorius Sol. ex. Rark. Pandanaceae Leaves Medicinally Aira Typha elephantina Roxb. Typhaceae Leaves Wasteland colonizer Jhinjha Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. Caesalpiniaceae Bark Medicinally Aak Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. Asclepiadaceae Bark Medicinally Semal Bombax ceiba Linn. Bombacaceae Fruit & Flower Ornamental Plant Arunj Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. Mimosaceae Bark Tannins , Gum, Resin Gondi Cordia gharf (Farsk.) Her. & Asch. Ehretiaceae Bark Medicinally Gadha Palas Erythrina suberosa Roxb. Fabaceae Bark Medicinally Gangan Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Fiori. Tiliaceae Bark Medicinally Khimp Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forsk.) Decne. Asclepiadaceae Stem Medicinally, Fruit edible Khajur Phoenix sylvestre Roxb. Arecaceae Leaves Fruit edibal Tad Borassus flabellifer Linn. Arecaceae Fruit & Flower Seed edible Dudhi Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. Apocynaceae Fruit & Flower Medicinally Ganiara Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston. Cochlospermaceae Fruit & Flower Gum & Resin Rambans Agave americana Linn. Agavaceae Leaves Medicinally Senia Crotalaria burhia Buch. Ham. Fabaceae Stem Wasteland colonizer Gonda Cordia oblique Willd. Ehretiaceae Bark Medicinally Table 6 : Other Economically important plants of Rajasthan. Local Name Botanical Name Family Uses Ber Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.. Rhamnaceae Lakh worm host Ghatbor Zizyphus glaberrima Santapau. Rhamnaceae Lakh worm host Palas Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub. Fabaceae Lakh worm host Pipal Ficus religiosa Linn. Moraceae Lakh worm hosts Shahtut Morus alba Linn. Moraceae Silk worm host Arjuna Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight. & Arn. Combretaceae Silk worm host Arundi Riccinus communis Linn. Euphorbiaceae Silk worm host Timru Diospryos melanoxylon Roxb. Ebenaceae Biri leaves Tendu Diospryos tomentosa Roxb. Ebenaceae Biri leaves Chikon Diospryos montana Roxb. Ebenaceae Biri leaves Jhinjha Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. Caesalpiniaceae Biri leaves Aritha Sapindus emarginatus Vahl. Sapindaceae Soap substitutes Hingot Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile. Simaroubaceae Soap substitutes Khus Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash. Poaceae Extraction and Distilation products Khair Acacia catechu Willd.. Mimosaceae Extraction and Distilation products Mahuwa Madhuca indica Gmel. Sapotaceae Extraction and Distilation products Rosha Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) Wats. Poaceae Extraction and Distilation products Chandan Santalum album Linn. Santalaceae Extraction and Distilation products ]