Jatropha curcus General introduction Jatropha is bush that grows in the warm regions of the world as it is sensitive to colder climates. Once it’s planted it grows and produces nuts that contain oil within a few years, and produces these annually for up to 50 years. Climate requirement for the plant is as altitude: 0-500 meters above sea level. mild-annual temperature: 20-28 °C.annual rainfall: 300-1000 mm., or more. Jatropha has been grown in developing countries for many years it’s been used locally for production of oil that was used in local village based industries for soap production. Since the plants are toxic they have also been used to plant hedges and to keep animals out of areas of land. Botany Jatropha plant is a small tree with smooth grey bark, which exudes a whitish coloured, watery, latex when cut. It grows between 3 to 5 meters in height, and up to 8 to 10 meters under favourable conditions, shrubs or trees with spreading branches and stubby twigs, with a milky or yellowish rufescent exudate. Leaves –Leaves are deciduous, alternate but apically crowded, ovate, acute to acuminate, basally cordate, 3 to 5-lobed in outline, 6–40 cm long, 6–35 cm broad, the petioles 2.5–7.5 cm long. Flowers – Flowers are many in greenish cymes, yellowish, bell-shaped; sepals 5, broadly deltoid. Male flowers many with 10 stamens, 5 united at the base only, 5 united into a column. Female flowers borne singly, with elliptic 3-celled, triovulate ovary with 3 spreading bifurcate stigmata. Fruits -Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produce several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits. - 2.5–4 cm long, finally drying and splitting into 3 valves, all or two of which commonly have an oblong black seed, the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries Description Shrub or tree to 6 m, with spreading branches and stubby twigs, with a milky or yellowish rufescent exudate. Flowers several to many in greenish cymes, yellowish, bell-shaped; sepals 5, broadly deltoid. Male flowers many with 10 stamens, 5 united at the base only, 5 united into a column. Female flowers borne singly, with elliptic 3-celled, triovulate ovary with 3 spreading bifurcate stigmata. Capsules, 2.5–4 cm long, finally drying and splitting into 3 valves, all or two of which commonly have an oblong black seed, these ca 2 x 1 cm (Morton, 1977; Little et al., 1974). Uses of Jatropha Jatropha is considered as a poor quality fuelwood since the soft wood burns too rapidly. In Africa, Jatropha is widely planted as a “living fence” and hedgerows to protect food crops from damage by livestock and as a windbreak to prevent soil erosion moisture depletion. In Madagascar, Jatropha is used as a support plant for Vanilla. The bark is reported to yield tannin in commercially useable quantities. In a startling 1982 study, several oil-energy species with the potential to grow in Malagasy (Madagascar) were compared, and Oil palm was considered energetically more promising than Jatropha; nevertheless, around 10,000 ha have been planted to Jatropha (although the citation did not specify whether the plantings were J. curcas or J. mahafalensis, ed.). Other studies conclude that using the oil to make soap is more profitable than using it as biodiesel; however, this was before the recent rise in fuel costs In India, pounded leaves are applied near horses' eyes to repel flies. Nuts can be strung on grass and burned like candlenuts. The oil has been used for illumination, making candles and soap, adulterating olive oil, and making Turkey red oil. Mexicans grow the shrub as a host for the lac insect that secretes resin used as a dye and to make shellac. Ashes of the burned root are sometimes used as a salt substitute. Jatropha has been found to have strong molluscicidal activity and the latex to be strongly inhibitory to watermelon mosaic virus. It is also listed as a homicide, piscicide and raticide. Uses According to Ochse (1980), "the young leaves may be safely eaten, steamed or stewed." They are favored for cooking with goat meat, said to counteract the peculiar smell. Though purgative, the nuts are sometimes roasted and dangerously eaten. In India, pounded leaves are applied near horses' eyes to repel flies. The oil has been used for illumination, soap, candles, adulteration of olive oil, and making Turkey red oil. Nuts can be strung on grass and burned like candlenuts (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). Mexicans grow the shrub as a host for the lac insect. Ashes of the burned root are used as a salt substitute (Morton, 1981). Agaceta et al. (1981) conclude that it has strong molluscicidal activity. Duke and Wain (1981) list it for homicide, piscicide, and raticide as well. The latex was strongly inhibitory to watermelon mosaic virus (Tewari and Shukla, 1982). Bark used as a fish poison (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). In South Sudan, the seed as well as the fruit is used as a contraceptive (List and Horhammer, 1969–1979). Sap stains linen and can be used for marking (Mitchell and Rook, 1979). Little, Woodbury, and Wadsworth (1974) list the species as a honey plant. Medicinals Although toxic, Jatropha is known as the physic or purging nut for its use as purgative/laxative, and is widely known as a source of medicinals for treatment of a variety of ailments. A range of healing properties have been ascribed to leaf preparations for both topical application and ingestion. Duke provides a most extensive list of its various uses in folk medicine. Folk Medicine According to Hartwell, the extracts are used in folk remedies for cancer. Reported to be abortifacient, anodyne, antiseptic, cicatrizant, depurative, diuretic, emetic, hemostat, lactagogue, narcotic, purgative, rubefacient, styptic, vermifuge, and vulnerary, physic nut is a folk remedy for alopecia, anasorca, ascites, burns, carbuncles, convulsions, cough, dermatitis, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, dyspepsia, eczema, erysipelas, fever, gonorrhea, hernia, incontinence, inflammation, jaundice, neuralgia, paralysis, parturition, pleurisy, pneumonia, rash, rheumatism, scabies, sciatica, sores, stomachache, syphilis, tetanus, thrush, tumors, ulcers, uterosis, whitlows, yaws, and yellow fever (Duke and Wain, 1981; List and Horhammer, 1969–1979). Latex applied topically to bee and wasp stings (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). Mauritians massage ascitic limbs with the oil. Cameroon natives apply the leaf decoction in arthritis (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). Colombians drink the leaf decoction for venereal disease (Morton, 1981). Bahamans drink the decoction for heartburn. Costa Ricans poultice leaves onto erysipelas and splenosis. Guatemalans place heated leaves on the breast as a lactagogue. Cubans apply the latex to toothache. Colombians and Costa Ricans apply the latex to burns, hemorrhoids, ringworm, and ulcers. Barbadians use the leaf tea for marasmus, Panamanians for jaundice. Venezuelans take the root decoction for dysentery (Morton, 1981). Seeds are used also for dropsy, gout, paralysis, and skin ailments (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). Leaves are regarded as antiparasitic, applied to scabies; rubefacient for paralysis, rheumatism; also applied to hard tumors (Hartwell, 1967–1971). Latex used to dress sores and ulcers and inflamed tongues (Perry, 1980). Seed is viewed as aperient; the seed oil emetic, laxative, purgative, for skin ailments. Root is used in decoction as a mouthwash for bleeding gums and toothache. Otherwise used for eczema, ringworm, and scabies (Perry, 1980; Duke and Ayensu, 1984). Four antitumor compounds, including jatropham and jatrophone, are reported from other species of Jatropha (Duke and Ayensu, 1984). Homeopathically used for cold sweats, colic, collapse, cramps, cyanosis, diarrhea, leg cramps Human consumption Jatropha can be toxic when consumed; however, a non-toxic variety of Jatropha is reported to exist in Mexico and Central America, said not to contain toxic Phorbol esters. This variety is used for human consumption after roasting the seeds/nuts, and "the young leaves may be safely eaten, steamed or stewed." They are favored for cooking with goat meat, said to counteract the peculiar smell. As such, it is suggested by some that “This non-toxic variety of Jatropha could be a potential source of oil for human consumption, and the seed cake can be a good protein source for humans as well as for livestock.” This non-toxic variety has not been studied as well as the toxic varieties; therefore, its properties and yields are relative unknown and “claims” unproven. The IPGRI study reports that the seeds are edible, once the embryo has been removed (no indication of which variety, ed.). Jatropha Oil It is unclear how much genetics play in the amount of oil contained in Jatropha seed and kernels; nevertheless, estimates of the oil content in seeds range from 35-40% oil and the kernels 55-60%. However, the amount of actual oil produced from seeds and kernels is contingent upon the method of extraction, with hand presses extruding only about 20% and more sophisticated a much higher quantity. The by-product of oil extraction from the seeds and kernels is called seed cake, and when oil is extracted as a cottage industry the resulting cake is said to still contain approximately 11% oil. The more sophisticated and efficient method of extraction produces seed-cake with much lower oil content. The clear oil expressed from the seed has been used for illumination and lubricating, and more recently has been suggested for energetic purposes as a substitute for diesel. One source reports that one ton of nuts yield an estimated 70 kg refined petroleum, 40 kg "gasoil leger" (light fuel oil), 40 kg regular fuel oil, 34 kg dry tar/pitch/rosin, 270 kg coke-like char, and 200 kg ammoniacal water, natural gas, creosote, etc. Oil for lighting and cooking Jatropha nuts can be strung on grass and burned like candlenuts, and the oil to make candles. Although many researchers have described Jatropha as a potential domestic fuel for cooking and lighting, with properties similar to kerosene, it cannot be used directly in conventional kerosene stoves or lamps. High ignition temperatures and viscosity (75.7 10-6 m2/s) as compared to kerosene (50-55 C, and 2.2 10-6m2/s respectively) mean that Jatropha oil will not burn as well, and would clog up all the tubes and nozzles in a conventional stove or lamp. Approaches to circumventing these problems are being tried. A low intensity lamp with a wick has been developed. The oil lamp requires a very short wick so that the flame is very close to the oil surface. Biodiesel The market that excites the most interest is that for biodiesel. However, there are several points of view that differ considerably regarding Jatropha’s suitability as a substitute for petroleum products. Right now these views yield less in actual sales than in prospects. How quickly these prospects will develop depends on the observer’s point of view. Jatropha oil has long been seen as a possible substitute for fuel oil for diesel engines. This is the product where interest is highest and most research is being conducted. Unrefined Jatropha oil can only be used in certain types of diesel engines, such as Lister-type engines; but even then they require modifications, and are high-maintenance. The Lister type engine is commonly used in developing countries to run small-scale flourmills or electric generators. These engines also have to be located in warm climates because the viscosity of Jatropha oil is too high at low temperatures. However, any diesel engine, with no modification other than the replacing of natural rubber with synthetic rubber hoses (which late model engines do not have anyway), can run on Jatropha fuel once the oil has gone through a process called trans-esterification. According to the IPGRI publication, the trans-esterification is process is normally carried out in centralized plants since the small-scale economy of trans-esterification has not been determined. During the process, methanol, a highly flammable and toxic chemical, has to be used, and this requires explosion-proof equipment that might not be available in developing countries. The WSU study contradicts the IPGR statement by claiming that the process is simple to carry out by just mixing the oil with methanol and caustic soda and leaving it to stand; nevertheless, the chemicals are toxic and highly flammable, and the processing dangerous. Regardless, this could be dangerous.Glycerin settles to the bottom of the tank, leaving the methyl ester, or biodiesel, at the top. This warrants further investigation in order to determine which statement is true. Perhaps both statements are true, and the former process is for more commercial-scale operations, and the latter is an “appropriate technology” developed for small-scale, cottage-industry producers. Biodiesel is reported to be environmentally superior to petroleum diesel, for Jatropha biodiesel emits about two-thirds less in unburned hydrocarbons and almost half as much carbon monoxide and particulate matter as conventional diesel. It contains no sulfur and so emits none. From the point of view of global warming, it is neutral in its net addition to greenhouse gasses because the carbon dioxide released in combustion was sequestered when growing the crop (this claim is questionable, since CO2 released would soon equate the CO2 sequestered by the plants after a relative short time, ed.). The WSU study optimistically concludes that while many vegetable oils are used to manufacture biodiesel, a given amount of land will produce much more oil from Jatropha than from the common alternatives (soybeans, cotton seed, rapeseed, sunflower, groundnuts). The glycerin by-product of the trans-esterification process can be used to make a high quality soap, or it can be refined and sold at a range of prices, depending on its purity, to be used in an immense range of products, including cosmetics, toothpaste, embalming fluids, pipe joint cement, cough medicine, and tobacco (as a moistening agent). Soap production The glycerin that is a by-product of biodiesel can be used to make soap, and soap can be produced from Jatropha oil itself. It will produce a soft, durable soap, and the rather simple soap making process is well adapted to household or small-scale industrial activity. The WSU study reports that in Africa where Jatropha hedgerows are widely planted to protect crops from livestock, Jatropha oil is used mainly in the manufacture of high quality soap. Soap making takes place on a cottage industry scale and is a boon to the people concerned, offering a chance to earn an income in economic environments where there are few such opportunities. The benefits accrue to the oil pressers and soap makers as well as to the farmers who provide the seed. The fact that the seed has a value is an added encouragement to the use of Jatropha shrubs as live hedges that already yield benefits in the form of livestock control and soil erosion reduction. However in other developing countries, other oils or tallow may be more plentiful and cheaper than Jatropha oil; therefore, planting Jatropha for oil as a raw material and creating cottage industries to make soap may not be economically feasible. According to the IPGI report, research carried out by the Tata Oil Mills Co., Ltd. in Bombay, India, has shown that with a mixture of 75% hydrogenated Jatropha oil, 15% refined and bleached Jatropha oil, and 10% coconut oil, a soap can be produced with lathering values equivalent to regular toilet soap. As can be seen in the table below, pressing of 12 kg of seeds yields 3 liters of oil that is then transformed into soap. The soap making technology is very simple, and is a real village technology with the only investment is a hand-operated press for $150 US (this figure seems unusually high, ed.). The soap can be made in plastic bowls or buckets, and the pieces cut with ordinary knifes. As the table shows, the processing of 12 kg of seeds gives 28 pieces of soap of 170 g each, which is 4,760 kg. This takes 5 hours of work (estimated). The total input is added to $3.04 US. The soap can be sold for $4.20 US, and the resulting 9 kg of presscake is well appreciated as organic fertilizer and can be sold for $0.27 US; a total revenue of $4.47 US. Reduced by the input of $3.04 US, the net profit of processing 12 kg of Jatropha seeds is $1.43 US, which is about $0.28 US per hour. Even if the estimated time for processing is doubled, the net profit is about $0.15 US per hour that is more than the average wage for workers. Skin care and Cosmetics The seed oil can be applied to treat eczema and skin diseases and to soothe rheumatic pain (Heller 1996). The 36% linoleic acid (C18:2) content in Jatropha kernel oil is of possible interest for skincare. Pesticides The oil and aqueous extract from oil has potential as an insecticide. For instance, it has been used in the control of insect pests of cotton including cotton bollworm, and on pests of pulses, potato and corn. Methanol extracts of Jatropha seed (which contains biodegradable toxins) are being tested in Germany for control of bilharzia-carrying water snails. And the pesticidal action of the seed oil is also the subject of research of International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, (ICRISAT) in India. Other uses Jatropha oil is also used to soften leather and lubricate machinery (e.g. chain saws). Seed- cake Seed-cake or press-cake is a by-product of oil extraction. Jatropha seed-cake contains curcin, a highly toxic protein similar to ricin in Castor, making it unsuitable for animal feed. However, it does have potential as a fertilizer, discussed in the next section below on markets. If available in large quantities, it can also be used as a fuel for steam turbines to generate electricity. When processed as a cottage industry, the seed cake still contains approximately 11% oil, has 58-60 % crude protein (53-55 % true protein content), and the level of essential amino acids except lysine is higher than the FAO reference protein. Nevertheless, without extensive processing, the seed cake is poisonous to animals, and untreated, is only good as a source of organic fertilizer. The production of oil from Jatropha seed inevitably results in a by-product of press-cake with a high percentage of protein -- 58 to 64%. One source suggests that it would be an excellent animal feed; however, it is toxic. Pentagon Chemicals in Zimbabwe succeeded in largely detoxifying the press-cake through a combination of heat treatment and solvent extraction, but apparently it was not an economically viable option for commercial production. There are, after all, other kinds of press-cake derived in processing other tree and plant oils that do not need detoxification. Press-cake derived from the non-toxic varieties of J. curcas from Mexico and Central America may not be toxic, but the literature reviewed did not show evidence of this. Non-toxic varieties are not grown in southern Africa. According to the WSU study, trials with Jatropha seed-cake have concluded that its properties compare favorably with those of other organic fertilizers with regard to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. However, there are issues needing to be addressed with respect to storage, the formation of organic acids, the slow degradation of lignin (shells) and the possible need for treatment with pesticides that might result from lack of microbial degradation. The improper storage of the seed cake might also result in the production of toxic aflatoxins. Charcoal In simple charcoal manufacture, 70 to 80 percent of the wood's energy is wasted and lost with yields of 30 percent in an industrial processes and 15-20 percent in a less sophisticated process in developing countries where charcoal is still one of the few simple fuel options. Jatropha wood is a very light wood and is not popular as a fuelwood source because it burns too rapidly. Four samples of Jatropha curcas wood were measured at USDA’s Forest Products Laboratory and their densities were 0.35, 0.33, 0.37 and 0.22. The scientist concluded that Jatropha wood would not be of much value for either firewood or charcoal. Some have suggested converting press cake into charcoal, but press cake is much more valuable to use as a fertilizer to ameliorate the impoverished soils in the developing countries with organic matter and nutrient contained within in order to increase crop production. However if the seed hulls were chopped and pressed, it could be used as a fuel for cottage industry use. The extraction oil from Jatropha seeds/nuts is of much higher economic value of Jatropha than converting the wood to charcoal. An exception is if a large area of land was colonized by a variety of Jatropha that had very low yields of nuts/oil and there is a desire to clear the area and replant it with a variety that produced much higher yields of nuts that contain more oil. There has been some thought to converting Jatropha seed shells into charcoal, but one needs to first seriously study what is involved, and if would you end up with an economical product. This would be economically feasible only if you had a large source of seed shells from Jatropha plantations. Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) scientist Dr. Michael Antal has developed a fuel cell using charcoal as its fuel. Dr. Antal’s research led to the discovery of a new Flash Carbonization™ process that quickly and efficiently produces biocarbon (i.e., charcoal) from biomass. This process involves the ignition of a flash fire at elevated pressure in a packed bed of biomass. Because of the elevated pressure, the fire quickly spreads through the bed, triggering the transformation of biomass to biocarbon. Fixed-carbon yields can attain the thermochemical equilibrium limit after reaction times of 20 to 30 minutes. Feedstocks have included woods and agricultural byproducts such as macadamia nut shells (somewhat similar to Jatroha seed shells) and corncobs. In the case of corncobs, the fixed-carbon yield attained the theoretical limit, and the reaction was complete after 20 minutes. The result is a very high-quality charcoal that has the potential to be used in high-value markets and sold as barbecue fuel, a soil amendment, a digestive health aid, for steel or metal production and to manufacture activated carbons sed to purify water. Oil Expellers More efficient oil expellers will extract a higher percent of oil from the seeds, which in turn should produce higher profits in a Jatropha system, since oil sells for more than the residual seed-cake. More efficient expellers cost more; therefore, one must have a very large amount of seed for processing and a ready market at competitive prices for the oil to make the expellers affordable. When using inefficient expellers, the seed-cake still contains at least 10% of the oil and if the seed contains 40% oil, that means 1/4th of the oil is wasted; a huge economic loss for any business enterprise. In 1995 a GTZ-expert in economy analysed the economic feasibility of the Jatropha approach in Mali. Two versions of expellers were studied: 1) a hand operated ram press; and 2) a motor driven Sundhara expeller powered by two different engines 2) a cheap Indian motor (Lister) that frequently broke down, and b) a more solid German Hatz motor that required very little maintenance. Yields and Economics According to Gaydou et al (1982), seed yields approach 6–8 MT/ha with ca 37% oil. They calculate that such yields could produce the equivalent of 2,100–2,800 liters fuel oil/ha (see table under Energy). In Madagascar, they have ca 10,000 ha of purging nut, each producing ca 24 hl oil/ha for a potential production of 240,000 hl (Gaydou, et al, 1982). Energy The clear oil expressed from the seed has been used for illumination and lubricating, and more recently has been suggested for energetic purposes, one ton of nuts yielding 70 kg refined petroleum, 40 kg "gasoil leger" (light fuel oil), 40 kg regular fuel oil, 34 kg dry tar/pitch/rosin, 270 kg coke-like char, and 200 kg ammoniacal water, natural gas, creosote, etc. In a startling study, Gaydou et al. (1982) compare several possible energy species with potential to grow in Malagasy. Oil palm was considered energetically most promising. Crop production MT/ha Fuel production /ha Energetic equivalent kwh/ha Elaeis guineensis 18–20 3,600–4,000 33,900–37,700 Jatropha curcas 6–8 2,100–2,800 19,800–26,400 Aleurites fordii 4–6 1,800–2,700 17,000–25,500 Saccharum officinarum 35 2,450 16,000 Ricinus communis 3–5 1,200–2,000 11,300–18,900 Manihot eaculenta 6 1,020 6,600 References • Agaceta, L.M., Dumag, P.U., and Batolos, J.A. 1981. Studies on the control of snail vectors of fascioliasis: Molluscicidal activity of some indigenous plants. In: Bureau of Animal Industry, Manila, Philippines, NSDB Technology Journal: Abstracts on Tropical Agriculture 7. 38008; 6: 2: 30–34. • Duke, J.A. and Atchley, A.A. 1984. Proximate analysis. In: Christie, B.R. (ed.), The handbook of plant science in agriculture. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. • Duke, J.A. and Ayensu, E.S. 1985. Medicinal plants of China. Reference Publications, Inc. Algonac, MI. • Duke, J.A. and Wain, K.K. 1981. Medicinal plants of the world. Computer index with more than 85,000 entries. 3 vols. • Gaydou, A.M., Menet, L., Ravelojaona, G., and Geneste, P. 1982. Vegetable energy sources in Madagascar: ethyl alcohol and oil seeds (French). Oleagineux 37(3):135–141. • Holm, L.G., Pancho, J.V., Herberger, J.P., and Plucknett, D.L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. • List, P.H. and Horhammer, L. 1969–1979. Hager's handbuch der pharmazeutischen praxis. vols 2–6. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. • Little, E.L., Jr., Woodbury, R.O., and Wadsworth, F.H. 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, vol. 2. Ag. Handbook 449. USDA, Washington, DC. • Mitchell, J.C. and Rook, A. 1979. Botanical dermatology. Greenglass Ltd., Vancouver. • Morton, J.F. 1977. Major medicinal plants. C.C. Thomas, Springfield, IL. • Morton, J.F. 1981. Atlas of medicinal plants of middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. C.C. Thomas, Springfield, IL. • Ochse, J.J. 1931. Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies. Reprinted 1980. A. Asher & Co., B.V. Amsterdam. • Perry, L.M. 1980. Medicinal plants of east and southeast Asia. MIT Press, Cambridge. • Tewari, J.P. and Shukla, I.K. 1982. Inhibition of infectivity of 2 strains of watermelon mosaic virus by latex of some angiosperms. Geobios. Jodhpur, India. 9(3):124–126. • Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd ed. E.&S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh and London