Family Mimosaceae has 56 genera and 2800 species which are found in tropical and subtropical region.
The mimosaceae plants are climber (Acacia caesia), tree (Acacia catechu), Shrub (Acacia farnesiana), deciduous tree (A. leucophalia), tree (babul), climber (A. pennata), low erect tree (A. senegal), tree (A. lebbeck) tree (Prosopis spp.).
Albizia lebbeck Benth is widely distributed in India and is also found in South Africa and Australia. It is a host of lac insect and is reported to have antiseptic, antidysentric
and anti-tubercular activities (Chadha, 1985) .
Review of Literature
National Status :
Acacia caesia Willd (Aila) It is important plant. Its roots are used in pleurisy, measles, smallpox and bronchitis. It has cleansing property and protect the skin against microorganism (Jain and Tarafder, 1970).
Acacia catechu Willd (Khair), it is important plant of this family which is useful in cancerous sores, bronchitis, pain in chest, strangulation of intestine, facilitate child birth.
It’s alcoholic (50% v/v) extract of stem has antiviral, antifungal and plasmolytic. Katha is an extract obtained from the heartwood, is used as an ingredient of paan and used for treating asthma. Acacia extract has following chemical substances
8 flavonoids, -galactose, -arabinose, -rhamnose, - glucuronic acid, Aldobiuronic acid
Acacia plants are found in Assam, Bihar, U.P., Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, M.P., Gujarat, Nepal (Bodding,1927; Jain and Tarafder, 1970; Joshi, 1982)
Acacia farnesiana Willed Pharmagnostically it is used in convulsions (root), sores (powder) eye disease (leaf), epilepsy (stem bark), rabies (bark smeared and drunk), cholera (as a prophylactic, with other plants), snakebite.
Its bark is used as astringent, demulcent. It is used in antifertility. This plant is found in France or Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Extract of this plant has following chemical substances - benzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, decylaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, ketone, cresol, benzyl alcohol, linalool, terpineol, nerolidol, farnesol, ethylphenols, coumarin, butyric acid, palmitic acid, benzoid acid, salicylic acid, eicosane (Joshi, 1982).
Acacia ferruginea DC. (Ker) : It is used in Scabies (Das et al., 1983).
Acacia leucophloea Willd (Safed Kikar) : It is useful as an astringent (Chopra et al., 1956).
Acacia modesta Wall : It is used as restroative (Chopra et al., 1956).
It has following chemical components : oetacosanol, -amyrin, betulin,
-sitosterol, -sitosterol and pinotol, octacosane.
Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Del. ssp. indica (Benth) Brenan, it is locally known as Babul. It is used in syphilis (bark), cholera (bark), dysentery, leprosy (bark), (Janardhan, 1963; Jain and Turafdar, 1970).
Cacia nilotica in pharmacy. It is used in preparing emulsions, tablets, pills etc. while decoction of bark is used in gurgle. It has following chemical components. galactose, l-arabinose, 4-oldobiuronic acids and arabinose, polyphenols, tannin, octacosanol, betulin, -amyrin, -sitosterol, gallic acid, 2 condensed tannins
Acacia pennata (Linn.) Willed : It is used as antidote to snake poison and useful for dandruff (Das et al., 1983). It has lupeol and -spinasterol, stem--sitosterol. It is also useful in headache.
Acacia senegal (Linn.) Willed : Traditionally it is used externally and applied to nodules in leprosy. It is applied externally to cover sore nipples, burns and other inflamed areas, taken internally for inflamed intestinal mucusa, emollient demulcent (Chopera et al., 1956).
It has following components : Ceryl alcohol, betulin, sifosterol, uvaol, octacosanol, -amyrin,
Acacia sinuata (Lour.) Merr. [Ritha] : It is used as a cathartic (leaf), an emetic, expectorant and apparent (Chopra et al., 1956)
Acacia auriculiformis : It has antimutagenic property. It has also chemopreventive (Kaur, et al., 2002).
Adenanthera pavonina ( barigumchi) : It is used in Laematuria (leaf), chronic rheumatism, gout, inflammation and boils (seed) (Chopra et al., 1956)
Albizzia amara (Roxb.) boivin (Krishna Shirish) : It is used to cure ophthalmia (leaf), applied on to ulcers, boil and inflammation (flower), used as an astringent for gonorrhoea, diarrhea and piles (seed) (Chopra et al.,1969).
It has following chemical components : -sitosterol, melacaeidin, 3-me-ether, melanoxetin, 3-methyl ether, flavonoid, glycosides, 4-ome-quercefin-3-rutinoside, sapogenin, echinocytis acid
Albizzia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Kanujera), It is used as lotion for skin disease, scabies and cuts (Chopra et al., 1969).
Albizzia julibrissin (Durazz) (Lal Siris) it is used in Scabies and blindness (Chopra et al., 1956).
Albizzia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth (Siris) : It is used for diarrhea, dysentery (bark), night blindness (leaf), swelling, carbuncles and boils (flower), piles, diarrhea and gonorrhea (seed). Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Family: Mimosaceae) is an unarmed deciduous tree12-21 m high, bark pale, young shoot glabrous. The root is used in hemicrania. The bark is bitter, cooling, alexiteric, anthelmintic, cures “vata”, diseases of the blood,
leucoderma, itching, skin disease, piles, excessive perspiration, inflammation, erysepalas, bronchitis, good in rat bite. The saponins of seeds exhibit antiovulatory properties. The seeds were also studied because of their lipid composition and their use as food. The saponin constituents of this genus so far described are echinocystic acid glycosides 1'4, 5]. Saponins from the barks of the this plant have been reported. (Chowdhary et al. 1984, Bikas et al, 1995). The bark are good for opthalmia. The flowers are given for asthma and for snakebite. All parts of the plant are recommended for the treatment of snake-bite (Kirtikar and Basu, 1999). It is reported to possess nootropic (Chintawar et al,
2002; Une et al, 2001), anxiolytic (Une et al, 2001), Anticonvulsant (Kasture et al, 2000; Kasture et al, 1996), Antifertility (Gupta et al, 2004) and Antidiarrhoeal (Besra et al 2002).
Siris has following chemical components : tannin, -catechin, -leucocyanidin, -pinitol, okanin, saponins lebbekanin A and B, echinocystic acid, oleanolic acid. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of the bark of Albizzia lebbeck (Mimosaceae) (MEAL) was evaluated against several models of inflammation such as arrageenan, histamine and dextran induced pedal inflammation in rats Pramanik, et al, 2005).
Albizzia odoratissima (Willd) Benth. (Kala Siris) : It is used in Leprosy (bark), ulcer (bark) and externally used (Chopra et al., 1956).
Albizzia procera (Roxb) Benth: It is used in ulcers (externally used). It has also insecticidal activity (Chopra et al., 1956).
Archidendron clypearia (Tack) Nielsen: It is used in smallpox, chicken pox, sorelegs, coughs and swellings (Chopra et al., 1969).
Dichrostachys cinerea (Linn.) (Vurtuli) : It is used for renal problem and urinary calculi, astringent stem :bruised young stems are effective for ophthalmia (Chopra et al., 1956).
Entada phaseoloides (Merr.) (Chian) : It’s juice is applied externally for ulcers. It is also useful as an emetic drug (stem) antihelmintic, tonic and emetic, used in inflamed glandular swellings (Chopra et al., 1969).
Leucaenaglauea : Its bark is used to relieve internal pain (Chopra et al., 1956).
Mimosa lamata (Willed) : It’s seeds are used as blood purifier (Shekhawat and Anand, 1981).
Mimosa pudica (Linn.) : It is used for dysentery, fever, gravel and urinary complaints, gum trouble, toothache expedites child birth (root). It is also useful in sinus, sores, piles wounds of thorns, swelling of feet, also same complaints as treated by roots (Kumar et al., 1980; Shekhawat and Anand, 1981; Chaudhuri et al., 1982; Bhalla et al., 1982 ; Megonutso and Rao, 1983; Saxena and Vyas, 1983; Nagendra and Abraham, 1984; Molla and Roy, 1985; Ambastha, 1986).
Mimosa rubicaulis : It use in snakebite, cholera, pleurisy, constipation, icterus, sunstroke, cachexy sores, measles (Bodding, 1927).
Neptunia oleracea Lour. (Lajalu) :Whole plant is used as astringent and refrigerant (Chopra et al., 1956).
Pithecellobium dulce : Dakhanibabule, it is used in enema (Chopra et al., 1956)
Prosopis cineraria : Plant ashes rubbed over the skin act as a depilatory
It is used to cure rheumatism and scorpion sting and guard against miscarriage (Chopra et al., 1956).
Acacia nilotica : Acacia nilotica plant extract has androstene and steroid which have anti-inflammatory activity (Chaubal et al., 2003).
Prosopis juliflora : Plant extract has antimicrobial activity, which is due to Juliflorine. This substance has been isolated by Ahmad et al., 1986.
Potential antimicorbial properties have been found in extract of bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Lozoya, et al., 1989).
The work on pharmaceutical activity of Mimosa plant has been done in eastern Tanzania by Chhabra et al., 1990.
Acacia nilotica has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, Pseudomonas observed by Nabi et al., 1992.
Antimicrobial activity of Julifloricine isolated from Prosopis juliflora is tested in University of Karachi, Pakistan (Aqeel, et al., 1989).
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and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck
leaves. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
- The tribal people and ethnic races throughout the world have developed their own culture, customs, cults, religious rites, taboos, totems, legends and myths, folk-fores and song, foods, medicinal practices, etc.
- Natural drug from the plants
- Many plant names appear in similes and metaphors in Hindi literature e.g. the red lips of the beloved have been compared with red flowers of kachnar (Bauhinia variegata Linn.)
- Plants in folk medicines in India
- Bioenergy perspectives for Global environment protection Agronomy of petro-crops.