The first reported used of x-ray therapy to treat prostate cancer, which claimed to have an excellent result is done by Imbert and Imbert in 1904. The investigation of x-ray radiation for patient therapy continued until it is adapted into clinical routine in the early 1920s (1). Progress in this area has been published by numerous scientists worldwide and served as the turning point for the development of new techniques and modalities.

Current Imaging Techniques
1. Ultrasonography
Contrast-enhanced Gray-scaleTransrectal Ultrasound-guided Prostate Biopsy in Men with Elevated Serum Prostate-specific Antigen Levels by Yang et al, 2008

Yang et al, 2008

Transrectal Ultrasonography of (TRUS) of the Prostate by Shetty et al, 2008

Shetty et al, 2008
2. Computed Tomography
Adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer using kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography: First clinical results by Nijkamp et al, 2008

Nijkamp et al, 2008

Examining Margin Reduction and Its Impact on Dose Distribution for Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Daily Cone-Beam Computed Tomography by Hammoud et al, 2008

Hammoud et al, 2008
3. Magnetic resonance imaging
How Good is MRI at Detecting and Characterising Cancer within the Prostate? by Kirkham et al, 2006

Kirkham et al, 2006

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Preoperative Identification of Localised Prostate Cancer by Villers et al, 2007

Villers et al, 2007

Emerging Imaging Techniques
4. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy in Prostate Cancer by Dayan Loria, 2009

Combined Magnetic Resonane Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis by Umbehr et al, 2008

Umbehr et al, 2008
5. Hypoxia imaging
Hypoxia in prostate cancer: A powerful shield against tumour destruction? by Marignol et al, 2008   

Marignol et al, 2008
An immunohistochemical assessment of hypoxia in prostate carcinoma using pimonidazole: Implications for radioresistance by Carnell et al, 2006

Carnell et al, 2006

Positron emission tomography
Positron emission tomography with c11-acetate for tumor detection and localization in patients with prostate-specific antigen relapse after radical prostatectomy by Sandbloom et al, 2006

Sandbloom et al, 2006

7. Positron emission tomography/Compuerized Tomography
11C-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography for Tumor Localization of Primary Prostate Cancer in Comparison With 12-Core Biopsy by Schiavina et al, 2006

Schiavina et al, 2006

Tunce et al, 2008

8. Lymphtropic nanoparticle MRI
Regional Lymph Node Staging using Lymphotropic Nanoparticle Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Ferumoxtran-10 in Patients with Penile Cancer by Tabatabaei et al, 2005

Tabatabaei et al, 2005

Lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LNMRI) identifies occult lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients prior to salvage radiation therapy by Ross et al, 2009

Ross et al, 2009

9. Sentinel node detection
Detection of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastases in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Comparison of [18F]Fluorocholine Positron Emission Tomography-Computerized Tomography and Laparoscopic Radioisotope Guided Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection by Hacke 2006

Hacke, 2006

10. Real-Time elastography
Evaluation of Prostate Cancer Detection with Ultrasound Real-Time Elastography: A Comparison with Step Section Pathological Analysis after Radical Prostatectomy by Salamon et al, 2008

Salomon et al, 2008

Real-time elastography in the diagnosis of prostate tumor by Ferrari et al, 2009

Ferrari et al, 2009

External Beam Radiation Therapy

1. Conventional radiotherapy2. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy
Acute urinary morbidity during 3D conformal radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer by Burden et al, 2009

3-D conformal radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer: A subgroup analysis of rectoscopic findings prior to radiotherapy and acute/late rectal side effects by Goldner et al, 2005

Goldner et al, 2005
3. Intensity modulated radiotherapy
Is IMRT needed to spare the rectum when pelvic lymph nodes are part of the initial treatment volume for prostate cancer? by Sanguineti et al, 2006

Sanguineti et al, 2006

4. Brachytherapy
     • High-Dose rate brachytherapy
Genitourinary Toxicity After High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy Combined With Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An Analysis to Determine the Correlation Between Dose–Volume Histogram Parameters in HDR Brachytherapy and Severity of Toxicity by Ishiyama et al, 2009

Ishiyama, 2009

An Eight-Year Experience of HDR Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer: Biopsy and PSA Outcome  by Bachand et al, 2009

Bachand et al, 2009
     • Low-dose rate brachytherapy

Does a Delay in Low Dose Rate (LDR) Brachytherapy After Tissue Diagnosis Affect Outcome for Men with Low Risk Prostate Cancer? by Andrews et al, 2005

Andrews et al, 2005

Comparison of 7-Year Outcomes Between LDR Brachytherapy and High Dose IMRT for Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer by Zelefsky et al, 2007

Zelefsky et al, 2009

5. Proton therapy

Radionuclide Treatment in Metastasized Prostate Cancer


1. Sriprasad S, Fenely M, Thompson P. History of prostate cancer treatment. Surgical
Oncology (2009), doi:10.1016/j.suronc.2009.07.001
2. Moyers M, Pouliot J. POINT/COUNTERPOINT:Proton therapy is the best radiation
treatment modality for prostate cancer. Med. Phys. 34(2), February 2007,
3. John S, Zietman A, Shipley W, et al. Newer imaging modalities to assist with target
localization in the radiation treatment of prostate cancer and possible lymph node
metastases. Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys., Vol. 71, No. 1, Supplement, pp. S43-47,
4. Mangar S, Huddart R, Parker C, et al. Technological advances in radiotherapy for treatment
of localized prostate cancer. European Journal of Cancer 41 (2005) 908-921.
5. Van der Poel H. Radionuclide treatment in metastasized prostate cancer. European
Association of Urology – European Board of Urology update series 5 (2007) 113-125.

Updated August 27, 2009