Patients with myocarditis can experience chest pains, shortness of breath or an irregular heartbeat. In severe cases, the inflammation can lead to heart failure and death.

In some instances, primarily with teenage boys, myocarditis is one of the complications associated with mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. A new study shows that if it is likely to happen, it is a far worse risk actually getting the SARS-CoV-2 infection. 

The largest study to date on the risk of developing myocarditis as a result of having the coronavirus vs. experiencing inflammation following COVID-19 vaccination was a systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 studies published worldwide from December 2019 through May 2022. The studies included nearly 58 million patients who reported cardiac complications and belonged to one of two groups: the 55.5 million who were vaccinated against COVID-19 compared to those who were not vaccinated (vaccination group), and the 2.5 million who contracted the virus compared to those who did not contract the virus (COVID-19 group).

An illustration of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Illustration by Getty and provided by Cedars-Sinai.

The researchers compared patients with COVID-19 — vaccinated and unvaccinated — to those without the virus. They found the risk of myocarditis was 15 times higher in COVID-19 patients, regardless of vaccination status, compared to individuals who did not contract the virus.

Next, the researchers separately compared the rates of myocarditis in those who received the vaccines to those in unvaccinated individuals. According to the findings, the rates of myocarditis in people who were vaccinated against COVID-19 were only twofold higher than in unvaccinated people.

In the vaccination group, the researchers separately compared the risk of myocarditis for various COVID-19 vaccines, including mRNA (Pfizer, Moderna), Novavax, AstraZeneca, and Johnson and Johnson. The median age of the study population was 49 years; 49% were men; and the median follow-up time after infection or COVID-19 vaccination was 28 days.

The researchers found that among those diagnosed with myocarditis after receiving the vaccine or having COVID-19, the majority (61%) were men. Of patients diagnosed with myocarditis in both vaccination and COVID-19 groups, 1.07% were hospitalized and 0.015% died.

Based on all the findings, the researchers concluded that the risk of myocarditis due to COVID-19 was seven times higher than the risk related to the vaccines.