What makes Hollywood blockbusters? Scientists writing in Psychological Science may have the answer. Using the sophisticated tools of modern perception research to deconstruct 70 years of film, shot by shot, the Cornell researchers say that successful movies follow a particular mathematical pattern.
The team of psychologists measured the duration of every shot in every scene of 150 of the most popular films released from 1935 to 2005. The films represented five major genres—action, adventure, animation, comedy and drama. Using a complex mathematical formula, they translated these sequences of shot lengths into "waves" for each film.
Researchers looked for a pattern called the 1/f fluctuation. The 1/f fluctuation is a concept from chaos theory, and it means a pattern of attention that occurs naturally in the human mind. Indeed, it's a rhythm that appears throughout nature, in music, in engineering, economics, and elsewhere. In short, it's a constant in the universe, though it's often undetectable in the apparent chaos.
Results of the study revealed that modern films—those made after 1980—were much more likely than earlier films to approach this universal constant. That is, the sequences of shots selected by director, cinematographer and film editor have gradually merged over the years with the natural pattern of human attention. This may explain the more natural feel of newer films—and the "old" feel of earlier ones. Modern movies may be more engrossing—we get "lost" in them more readily—because the universe's natural rhythm is driving the mind.
Filmmakers probably haven't deliberately crafted their movies to match this pattern in nature. Instead, it's more likely that the relatively young art form has gone through a kind of natural selection, as the edited rhythms of shot sequences were either successful or unsuccessful in producing more coherent and gripping films. The most engaging and successful films were subsequently imitated by other filmmakers, so that over time and through cultural transmission the industry as a whole evolved toward an imitation of this natural cognitive pattern.
Overall, action movies are the genre that most closely approximates the 1/f pattern, followed by adventure, animation, comedy and drama. But individual films from every genre have almost perfect 1/f rhythms. The Perfect Storm, released in 2000, is one of them, as is Rebel Without a Cause, though it was made in 1955. So too is The 39 Steps, Hitchcock's masterpiece from way back in 1935.
What Makes A Hollywood Blockbuster? Science Has The Answer
By News Staff | February 22nd 2010 10:00 PM | Print | E-mail