Sports Science

There are a lot of conflicting reports about the common elbow surgery made famous by Major League Baseball pitcher, Tommy John - Ulna Collateral Ligament (UCL) reconstruction surgery. Some reports show it helps pitchers win more games, some show it does not.

If a young patient needs anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery, it's better to get it done. Postponing is risks secondary knee injuries, according to a paper at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's (AOSSM) Annual Meeting.

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments connecting the thighbone (femur), shinbone (tibia), and kneecap (patella) to form the knee joint. The cruciate Ligaments are found inside the knee joint and control its back and forth motion and they cross each other to form an 'x' shape, with the posterior cruciate ligament in back and the anterior cruciate ligament in front.

An analysis based on 14 marathons that occurred in the U.S. in 2011, which included almost 92,000 competitors, led scholars to conclude that, when it comes to running marathons, men are more likely than women to slow their pace.

The United States leads the world in science output, with 5 percent of the population producing 30 percent of the world's research. And yet compared to scientists in other countries, U.S.-based scientists are underrepresented as authors of articles on the potential role of innate variation in athletic performance. 

Grand Valley State University researchers searched journals and NIH and NSF databases for grant proposals solicited or funded from 2000-2012 to determine if the proportion of authors that listed U.S. addresses was associated with funding patterns. NIH did not solicit grant proposals designed to examine these factors in the context of athletic performance and neither NIH nor NSF funded grants designed to study these topics.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of available data published in Diabetologia suggests that combined aerobic and resistance training, rather than either alone, is best for controlling both blood sugar and blood fat profiles among people with type 2 diabetes.

However, the authors stress that the strength of the results is weakened when studies with high risk of bias are removed, and thus more high quality trials are needed to make more definitive conclusions. 

It doesn't matter if you were a quarterback or a shortstop, past participation in competitive team sports made participants in a recent analysis winners in the competition for better jobs, according to a recent paper. 

Writing in the Journal of Leadership  &  Organizational Studies,
Kevin M. Kniffin, postdoctoral research associate at Cornell University's Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, and colleagues found that people who played a varsity high school sport were assumed to be more self-confident, have more self-respect, and demonstrate more leadership than people who took part in other extracurricular activities. 

The smoothness of a ball’s surface is a critical factor in how a ball swerves, according to a new study. And if you know soccer (football) you know every year the ball in the World Cup is different - and invariably the source of complaints.

The World Cup 2014 is off to a roaring start - not a single 0-0 tie game - which is great for fans but terrifying for goalies. Yes, it's the ball. The “Jabulani” used at the 2010 World Cup was reviled while the new ball used at this year’s tournament in Brazil, the “Brazuca,” has a slightly rougher surface, and may be more predictable. The results so far still can't be making goalies happy.

Does money buy championships? That is the prevailing theory. While it is common for a team like Chelsea, which got purchased buy a Russian billionaire who kept buying new teams until they won, to achieve success, a Swansea is less likely.

Assuming scouts and personnel managers really know what they are doing, economics should be as fine an indicator of success as anything, in that case. You might think so, in baseball, where a season is 162 games. The New York Yankees certainly did well by buying the best free agent they could get each year. But what about World Cup soccer, where after the initial round each game is sudden death? Can a national team of all-stars who have played together infrequently win more often if their players are rich?

When it comes to sprint interval training, men have won the battle of the sexes, according to new research in The FASEB Journal.

A new study found that men create more new proteins as a result of sprint interval training than women do - but there is good news for both genders: men and women experienced similar increases in aerobic capacity.

In most sports, youth helps. The adage was that if an older person can do it better than a younger person, it isn't a sport.

But the lines of performance are lot more blurry today and youth is not a barometer. Lots of high school students can jump right to the NBA, and the first round draft pick in the NFL college draft is likely to be starting the next summer, but baseball drafts aren't big media events because no one drafted is likely to get called up for a few years. Baseball takes more practice.

And when it comes to marathons, old people really blow the sports curve. They even turn it into a U-shape; a 55- or 60-year-old runner will often finish in the same time as an 18-year-old.