Calibration does not always mean fixing a device, it sometimes means adjusting to solve a problem. In the early years of America, the famous Kentucky longrifles that conquered the frontier (and some British) had fixed sights. Since they couldn't be adjusted, frontiersmen - Kentucky was part of "The West" then - would adjust for wind, elevation and range by experience. If their shot was hitting low and left, they aimed high and right. Inference helped them get a better result.
The results of a third-party investigation of Rossi's E-CAT reactor have appeared on the Cornell arxiv
, and the conclusions of the tests are at the very least startling:
"New Physics can appear at any moment but it is now conceivable that no new physics will show up at the LHC"
Guido Altarelli, LHC Nobel Symposium, May 15th 2013
It is funny reading the above quote if you are one who "conceived" that the LHC could find no new physics 7 years ago, as demonstrated by where I put my money...
Hofstadter's Butterfly, a complex pattern of the energy states of electrons that resembles a butterfly, has appeared in physics textbooks as a theoretical concept of quantum mechanics for nearly 40 years but had never been directly observed - until now.
Finally the decay of Higgs bosons to b-quark pairs is emerging from LHC data, too.
Supersymmetry, the extension of the Standard Model of particle physics that was once sold as an almost certain discovery that the LHC experiments would bump into upon starting to collect proton-proton collisions, is not in a very healthy situation these days.
In 1992 the top quark had not been discovered yet, and it did not make much sense for the CDF collaboration to have a full meeting devoted solely to it; rather, analyses targeting the search of the top quark were presented at a meeting which dealt with both bottom and top quarks. This was called back then "Heavy Flavour meeting".
While school-age models of atomic nuclei show them as being spherical, like a basketball, they are more like the shape of a football.
Yet for some particular combinations of protons and neutrons, nuclei can also assume very asymmetric shapes, like a pear, where there is more mass at one end of the nucleus than the other.
With the Higgs boson in the bag, the game called "global fit" that particle physicists have been playing for a couple of decades has changed significantly. The knowledge of the Higgs boson mass provided by the measurements obtained by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, added to dozens of other measurements of critical observable properties of subatomic particles that have been measured at LEP/SLC, LEPII, the Tevatron, and the LHC itself, allow us to constrain some of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model more than direct experimental determinations do.
But what the heck is a global fit ?
"A detailed study of four-jet hadronic events at LEP 1.5 has been reported by the ALEPH collaboration. From selected four-jet events, the invariant masses of jet pairs are computed, and out of the three jet combinations, the one with the lowest difference in jet-pair masses is retained. [...] Not only is the total number of four-jet events observed by ALEPH at 130-140 GeV larger than expected from QCD, but this excess is contained in a narrow window around 105 GeV for the sum of jet-pair masses. In this window, about two times the width of the estimated resolution, nine events are observed with only 0.8 events expected from QCD."
J.Mnich, "Recent Results from LEP", SLAC XXIV Summer Institute, 1996.