Physics

Yesterday and today I have been spending time in Rome together with 600 Italian colleagues, at a symposium named "What Next". The idea is to discuss what should be the strategy of the institute to participate and support basic research in fundamental physics in the next few decades.

The format of the event is of short summary talks by ten "working groups" that examined different macro-areas: Precision SM Physics, Cosmic Ray Physics, Neutrino Physics, Flavour Physics, Gravitational Waves, Beyond the SM Physics, New Technologies, Fundamental Physics, and Dark Matter (I might have forgotten one). To each summary, delivered by two or three leaders of each working group, follows an open discussion that is allotted at least as much time as the presentations.
Information is not destroyed but it is even more scrambled up than anyone thought by black holes. I have used the framework of relativization, to compute the temperature of the proposed firewalls.  It would be about 1.410 septillion Kelvin.   Relativization which has been developed in open peer reviewed literature and conference presentation in to a comprehensive theory combining General Relativity with Quantum Field Theory.  Black holes shred information, then burn it in a furnace hotter than millions of Suns. 
          
    Higgs sector is the least advanced one in the Standard Model. There are two ways of developments – theoretical and semi-empirical. The main content of the latter is looking for physically meaningful regularities of the empirical parameter system especially in the ratios and hierarchies of masses and mixing angles in flavor groups.

The first law of thermodynamics is commonly known as the law of conservation of energy.  This means that in any process, no matter how big, small, long or short, the amount of energy of the system will always remain the same throughout time, it is a constant.  So if you run an engine, build a bridge, turn a turbine, boil a liquid or do anything else for that matter, the total energy before and after this (and all processes) will be the same.  You can only convert energy from

Technological advances may be ushering in a new era of understanding in the search for fundamental physical particles - including dark matter - said Professor Alex Murphy of the University of Edinburgh's School of Physics and Astronomy at the AAAS meeting in Washington, D.C.

Deep space observations together with experiments far underground are hunting for dark matter - an elusive material which, together with dark energy, is thought to account for about 94 percent of the universe.  You can read all about dark matter and dark energy here.


                    Comment on the Number of Flavors in Standard Model
   A widely used definition (see e.g. Wikipedia for a summery) of the number of particle ‘flavors’ in the SM is 6: 3 particle mass copies (e. g. electron, muon, tau for charged leptons; u, c, t for up-quarks …) doubled by the two up- and down- states.
   Flavor is still a mystery in the SM. Historical Rabi’s quip “Who ordered the muon?” is steel urgent now for the three flavor mass copies of elementary particles.
I believe that the recent discovery of gravitational waves has been described in enough detail by reporters and bloggers around, that my own contribution here would be pointless. Of course I am informed of the facts and reasonably knowledgeable about the topic, and my field of research is not too distant from the one that produced the discovery, so I could in principle offer something different from what you can find by just googling around. But I have a better idea.
What I think you cannot read elsewhere are the free thoughts I had as I listened to the announcement by the VIRGO collaboration. So maybe this may be a different kind of contribution, and of some interest to you.
In recent releases announcing the forthcoming publication of new results on the detection of gravitational waves, the collaborations LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France), explicitly (and wrongly) attribute to Albert Einstein the original prediction of th
LIGO the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory may announce the detection of gravitational waves tomorrow at 10:30AM Eastern time.  I will watch it  and  live tweet it.  The question of the day for most normal people will be...  What are gravitational waves?  See below for the answer to this question, and below that a live stream of my tweets on the subject as it happens.  


UPDATE:  The Perimeter Institute a hub of theoretical physics research will have their own livestream following the LIGO press conference. 

UPDATE2: Updated to display a collection of my tweets on gravitational waves during and near the time of the press conference.

The Large Hadron Collider is probably the world’s most famous science experiment. The 27 km-long ring-shaped particle accelerator beneath the edge of the Alps grabbed the world’s attention in 2013 when it proved the existence of the Higgs boson particle. This helped physicists confirm that one of their key theories about the way the universe worked was correct – a huge step for science.

But particle accelerators also have a big impact on our real lives. Even Christmas wouldn’t be the same without them.