Neuroscience

Silent strokes are a loss of blood flow to parts of the brain. Such strokes do not cause immediate symptoms and typically go undiagnosed, but they cause damage. In kids, they can even lower IQ.


A brain imaging study that looked at chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups found deficits in specific regions of brain white matter and associates these changes with increased impulsivity in
codeine-containing cough syrup
users. 


By Joel N. Shurkin, Inside Science

In an analogy many scientists hate, the human brain is often compared to a small, wet computer, functioning in almost the same way as the electronic kind. Two scientists at Cornell University report the analogy might be closer to the truth than anyone thought.

They have found an emotion code.

How people and animals focus on distinct objects within cluttered scenes is a long-standing neuroscience debate and a great deal of research has looked to the way bats "see" with their ears for answers.


Researchers at the University of Montreal and CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre have traced the origins of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse and conduct disorder, and found that they develop from the same neurocognitive deficits, which might explain why they often occur together.

The findings were established by studying the reward sensitivity and decision making patterns of 1,778 European 14-year-olds of comparable demographic profile. The teens were asked to undertake several tasks while undergoing an MRI and answer personality questionnaires. Clinicians also profiled the participants, once at the time of the testing, and again two years later.


An analysis of autism research covering genetics, brain imaging, and cognition seeks to modernize our understanding of why autism potentially occurs, develops and results in a diversity of symptoms.

The team calls it the “Trigger-Threshold-Target’’ model. Brain plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to respond and remodel itself, and this model is based on the idea that autism is a genetically induced plastic reaction. The trigger is multiple brain plasticity-enhancing genetic mutations that may or may not combine with a lowered genetic threshold for brain plasticity to produce either intellectual disability alone, autism, or autism without intellectual disability.

Testosterone, a steroid hormone, contributes to aggressive behavior in males, but the neural circuits through which testosterone exerts these effects have not been clear.

Prior studies found that the administration of a single dose of testosterone influenced brain circuit function. Surprisingly, those studies were conducted exclusively in women.

Researchers, led by Dr. Justin Carré, sought to rectify that gender gap by conducting a study of the effects of testosterone on the brain's response to threat cues in healthy men. They focused their attention on brain structures that mediate threat processing and aggressive behavior, including the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray.


Asiaticoside is the main saponin constituent of Centella asiatica, a plant long used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine that has become popular for human collagen synthesis applications, like anti-wrinkle treatments.

In the central nervous system, Asiaticoside has been found by some studies to attenuate in vitro neuronal damage caused by exposure to β-amyloid. However, any potential neuroprotective properties in glutamate-induced excitotoxicity have not been fully studied. 


Bioengineers have created three-dimensional brain-like tissue that functions like and has structural features similar to tissue in the rat brain and that can be kept alive in the lab for more than two months.


A long-term, large-scale population-based study of individuals aged 55 years or older in the general population researchers has found a four-fold increased risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) if they were diagnosed even with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Compared to cognitively healthy individuals, other risk factors including older age, positive APOE-ɛ4 status, low total cholesterol levels, and stroke, as well as specific MRI findings were associated with an increased risk of developing MCI.