Cancer Research

Currently, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and other biomarkers are used for diagnosing and monitoring prostate cancer. However, biomarkers to selectively identify patients with high risk of recurrence, those who might benefit from intervention, and those who can safely choose active surveillance, are lacking. A new study in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics describes a biomarker, PITX2 DNA methylation, which is capable of distinguishing cancerous tissue from non-cancerous tissue and predicting the risk of cancer recurrence using only small amounts of tissue obtained from core needle biopsies.
There is no clear cut-off age to stop breast cancer screening, according to a new analysis which adds support for guidelines that encourage screening decisions based on individual patients and their health status. But which puts doctors, hospitals and insurance companies at risk in a defensive medicine environment where there are unlimited potential damages if an attorney gets a cancer patient in front of a jury.
How cancer can suddenly reappear months, or years after treatment is complete is an ongoing mystery in incology.

A new study finds dormant tumor cells might have become latent because they cannibalized—basically ate—the body’s own stem cells. The team had been working on teaching adult stem cells from bone marrow, called mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), to fight cancer when they noticed that the MSCs were disappearing from the cell cultures. The team was working on teaching adult stem cells from bone marrow, called mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), to fight cancer when they noticed that the MSCs were disappearing from the cell cultures.
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A recent news post on an exciting breakthrough in prostate cancer, which appeared this month of November 2016, piqued my interest since the subject was close to the research I worked on myself as a postdoctoral researcher.

 

I worked on deciphering the types of genes that were altered in prostate cancer in the presence or absence of the androgen hormone. Of course, I was concerned with picking out a few relevant genes and working on them individually rather than deciphering the signaling pathway involved.

 

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy., the seventh most common cancer in women and the 18th most common cancer overall, with over 200,000 new cases worldwide each year.

One in six women (17 percent) diagnosed with breast cancer go to their doctor with a symptom other than a lump - the most commonly reported breast cancer symptom - according to data from 2009/10 National Audit of Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care presented at the 2016 National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer conference in Liverpool. There are more than 53,600 breast cancers diagnosed in the UK every year and 11,400 deaths from the disease annually.

Breast symptoms, other than a breast lump, that may be a sign of cancer (termed 'non-lump' in the study) include nipple abnormalities, breast pain, skin abnormalities, ulceration, shape abnormalities and an infected or inflamed breast.


Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Early detection is essential to improve prognoses. Working toward that goal, a collaboration of researchers in Japan has discovered proteins in the blood which improve the detection of pancreatic cancer. When used in combination with conventional pancreatic cancer biomarkers, it enables the diagnosis of early stage pancreatic cancer, which was previously thought to be difficult.


Tumours are an accumulation of cells that divide without control, accumulating hundreds of chromosomal alterations and mutations in their DNA. These alterations are triggered in part by a type of damage to the DNA known as replicative stress. To survive in the face of this chaos, tumour cells need the intervention of the damage response protein ATR, known for its role as guardian of genome integrity, to which they become addicted. After eight years of work, Oscar Fernández-Capetillo's team at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) has discovered that blocking this protein has antitumour effects in several animal models of cancer, such as an aggressive type of acute myeloid leukaemia and Ewing sarcoma.


With over 120,000 patients in the United States waiting for a kidney transplant, scientists and physicians are constantly looking to expand the pool of available organs through increasing donation and optimizing allocation. Researchers analyzed data from thousands of transplants and developed a scoring system for donor kidneys that they hope might expand the pool of available organs in two ways. They published their findings in the Annals of Transplantation.


People with the most common type of lung cancer whose disease has spread to the brain could be spared potentially harmful whole brain radiotherapy, according to new research published in The Lancet. The phase 3 randomized trial found that whole brain radiotherapy had no beneficial effect on length or quality of survival over treatment with steroids and other supportive care.

Despite its widespread use, until now there has been no robust evidence to determine whether whole brain radiotherapy, which can have substantial side effects (eg, fatigue, nausea, neurotoxicity), is better than best supportive care alone in terms of prolonging life or improving quality of life.