Cancer Research

The location of oral cancers differ in smokers and nonsmokers and nonsmokers have a higher proportion of cancers occur on the edge of the tongue, according to a new paper in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head&Neck Surgery.

By 2030, nearly 10 percent of colon cancers and nearly 25 percent of rectal cancers will be diagnosed in patients younger than the traditional screening age. This growing public health problem is underscored by data trends among 20- to 34-year-olds in the U.S., among whom the incidence of colon and rectal cancer (CRC) is expected to increase by 90% and 124.2%, respectively, by 2030.

Nearly 137,000 people will be diagnosed with
colon and rectal cancer
in the U.S. this year, and more than 50,000 will die of the disease.
colon and rectal cancer
is the third most common cancer among men and women, and the third leading cause of cancer death.

A research team has produced a detailed working image of an enzyme in the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) related to the BRCA1 breast-cancer protein. PRC1 regulates cell development and is associated with many types of cancer because enzymes like PRC1 turn on or turn off the activity of genes in a cell by manipulating individual chromosome units called nucleosomes. 

Men who have had sex with more than 20 women have a 28% lower risk of getting prostate cancer than those who have had only one partner  - but males having more than 20 male partners face a 100% higher risk of getting prostate cancer than those who have never slept with a man. 

The results were obtained as part of the Montreal study PROtEuS (Prostate Cancer&Environment Study), in which 3,208 men responded to a questionnaire on, amongst other things, their sex lives. Of these men, 1,590 were diagnosed with prostate cancer between September 2005 and August 2009, while 1,618 men were part of the control group.

Risk Associated with Number of Partners

By sequencing the genomes of tumor cells, thousands of genetic mutations have been linked with cancer.

Sifting through this deluge of information to figure out which of these mutations actually drive cancer growth has proven to be a tedious, time-consuming process but MIT researchers have now developed a new way to model the effects of these genetic mutations in mice. Their approach, based on the genome-editing technique clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is much faster than existing strategies, which require genetically engineering mice that carry the cancerous mutations.

Metastasis of breast cancer occurs when cells move from the primary tumor to other parts of the body.

Though health care is free, it doesn't always come without a cost. The United Kingdom is behind most countries in lung cancer survival and the big reason is because it goes undiagnosed.

It isn't that people won't go to the doctor due to cost, so it must be that doctors don't pick up the signs of lung cancer and investigate them, say the authors of a new study who analyzed family doctors' (GPs') investigation of lung cancer between 2000 and 2013, using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), which contains the anonymized health records of millions of primary care patients across the UK.

Cancer-driving genomic aberrations in localized lung cancer appear are so consistently present across tumors that a single biopsy of one region of the tumor is likely to identify most of them, according to a new paper.

The study addresses the challenge of what scientists call genomic heterogeneity, the presence of many different variations that drive tumor formation, growth and progression, and likely complicate the choice and potential efficacy of therapy.

A landmark study of renal cell cancer in 2012 found that most cancer-promoting variations were not present across all regions of those tumors, so biopsy of a single region would not provide a good representation of cancer genes important in the genesis of any given tumor.

No matter what type of chemotherapy you attack a tumor with, many cancer cells resort to the same survival tactic: They start eating themselves. This autophagy process happens when two proteins pair up and switch it on this process, according to a new paper.

"This gives us a therapeutic avenue to target autophagy in tumors," says Brigham Young University chemistry professor Josh Andersen. "The idea would be to make tumors more chemo-sensitive. You could target these proteins and the mechanism of this switch to block autophagy, which would allow for lower doses of chemotherapy while hopefully improving patient outcomes."

It's not a movie about zombies, but it's a Halloween nightmare - at night while we sleep unaware, something deadly grows and spreads quickly.

In a surprise finding, Weizmann Institute of Science researchers have found that nighttime is the right time for cancer to grow and spread in the body. Their findings suggest that administering certain treatments in time with the body’s day-night cycle could boost their efficiency.