Quantum entanglement is a well observed but not well understood phenomena.  The frontier in this area has been to entangle systems at greater and greater distances.  Theoretically however it is poorly understood.  Susskind and Maldacena proposed the ER=EPR conjecture, which to oversimplify, states that entangled particles are connected by tiny wormholes(Maldacena and Susskind)  In this brief blog post I present a simple proof that the “non-locality” that experimentalist write of, and Susskind conjectured about solving via wormholes, can be explained with standard quantum mechanics and standard relativity.   What is new here is how we look at the spaces involved.


The base model of the Hilbert Book Model consists of an infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space and it's unique non-separable companion Hilbert space that embeds its separable companion. The version of the quaternionic number system that specifies the values of the inner product of these Hilbert spaces also defines the background parameter space of the base model. The rational values of this background parameter space form the eigenspace of a special reference operator that resides in the separable Hilbert space, and the full background parameter space is the continuum eigenspace of the companion reference operator in the non-separable Hilbert space.

The Hilbert Book Test Model is a purely mathematical model of the lower levels of the structure of physical reality. Its base consists of an infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space and its unique non-separable companion Hilbert space. Both Hilbert spaces use members of a version of the quaternionic number system to deliver the values of their inner products.

Since more than two centuries physics knows two categories of super-tiny objects that instruments cannot observe separately, but that obviously occur in huge quantities. If these super-tiny objects form coherent sets, then these sets constitute the objects that we currently consider as fundamental to quantum physics.

A new analysis by the ATLAS collaboration, based of the data collected in 13 TeV proton-proton collisions delivered by the LHC in 2016, finds an excess of X-->4 lepton events at a mass of 240 GeV, with a local significance of 3.6 standard deviations. The search, which targeted objects of similar phenomenology to the 125 GeV Higgs boson discovered in 2012, is published in ATLAS CONF-2017-058. Besides the 240 GeV excess, another one at 700 GeV is found, with the same statistical significance.
If you look around, then (nearly) all discrete objects are modules or modular systems. Via experiments, we know that a set of elementary modules exist that together constitute all other modules and the modular systems. Physics calls these elementary modules elementary particles. These objects appear to be point-like and at the same time, they can behave as waves. So many scientists consider them as wave packages. That is not a correct interpretation because when they move wave packages disperse and elementary particles do not disperse. However, another explanation exists that allows both the point-like and the wave-like explanation. This explanation involves a mechanism that lets the point-like particle hop around in a stochastic hopping path.

The HBMP starts from the assumption that physical reality has structure and that this structure has a foundation. Many scientists find it difficult to assume that physical reality applies mathematics because they consider math as a human invention. The fact that foundations tend to have a simple structure that is easily comprehensible can counter this attitude.

This is the second part of a section taken from Chapter 3 of the book "Anomaly! Collider Physics and the Quest for New Phenomena at Fermilab". The chapter recounts the pioneering measurement of the Z mass by the CDF detector, and the competition with SLAC during the summer of 1989. The title of the post is the same as the one of chapter 3, and it refers to the way some SLAC physicists called their Fermilab colleagues, whose hadron collider was to their eyes obviously inferior to the electron-positron linear collider.


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Last week-end Padova researchers tested the first calorimeter and tracker prototypes of the iMPACT project at the APSS/TIFPA Proton Therapy Facility in Trento (Italy).

iMPACT (innovative Medical Proton Achromatic Calorimeter and Tracker) is a project led by Piero Giubilato, who won an ERC consolidator grant from the European Union. The project aims to develop a high resolution and high rate (>100 kHz/cm2) proton Computed Tomography (pCT) scanner. The scanner will combine a highly-segmented range calorimeter made of PVT scintillators, for energy measurements, and a silicon pixel tracker, for trajectory reconstructions.