Public Health

Hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs) and contraceptive implants remain highly effective even one year beyond their approved duration of use, according to a new study.

Now the researchers are evaluating whether such long-acting forms of birth control are effective for up to three years past the length of use under which they were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Contraceptive implants - matchstick-sized rods inserted into the arm - are approved for three years while hormonal IUDs are approved for five years.
If you need a reason to drink wine, there is more good news from the world of science. A recent study exposed human liver and fat cells grown in the lab to extracts of four natural chemicals found in Muscadine grapes, a dark-red variety native to the southeastern United States.

One of the chemicals, ellagic acid, proved particularly potent: It dramatically slowed the growth of existing fat cells and formation of new ones, and it boosted metabolism of fatty acids in liver cells.

Remember all those great Super Bowl ads for beer? According to a study by researchers at the Norris Cotton Cancer Center (NCCC) and Children’s Hospital at Dartmouth-Hitchcock (CHaD), seeing and liking alcohol advertising on television among underage youth was associated with the onset of drinking, binge drinking and hazardous drinking.

Alcohol is the most common drug used by young people. In 2013, 66.2 percent of U.S. high school students reported trying alcohol, 34.9 percent reported alcohol use in the past 30 days and 20.8 percent reported recent binge drinking.

Mars One, a private effort to do what governments seem incapable of achieving, has believers excited about colonizing another planet, but the long-term consequences of living in low or no-gravity conditions remain unclear. 

Mice are not people but if they are an accurate model, it might not go well. A new paper in The FASEB Journal found that spaceflight may be associated with a process of accelerated aging of the immune system. Specifically, researchers found that mice in low gravity conditions experience changes in B lymphocyte production in their bone marrow similar to those observed in elderly mice living in Earth conditions. 
A new study has linked a previously unexplored biological process to the failure of embryos to attach to the uterine wall during in vitro fertilization (IVF).

IVF only has around a 25% success rate, largely due to the high rates of failure when embryos try to implant. Some women suffer from recurrent implantation failure, where the embryo is transferred but fails to attach to the endometrium – the mucus membrane of the uterine wall. This is a significant cause of the failure of IVF as most embryo losses occur at this early stage.
A secondary analysis of a mild gestational diabetes mellitus treatment trial long-term follow-up study looked at the relationship between maternal oral glucose tolerance testing and childhood body mass index, fasting glucose, insulin and anthropometrics in the offspring of untreated mild GDM and non GDM assessed at ages five to 10 years.

They concluded that maternal glycemia impacts childhood obesity and metabolic dysfunction.
An upcoming presentation at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting argues that more midwives and a general change to the American child delivery process can reduce cesarean delivery rates - the very thing doctors were sued for not doing enough of in the 1990s.

 Primary and repeat cesarean delivery rates are now high in the U.S., with nearly one-third of women delivering by cesarean compared to 21 percent in 1995. Cesarean delivery has also associated with a higher risk of maternal complications, longer length of stay and longer postpartum recovery, but there are non-medical reasons why it is difficult to lower the rates.

By Amanda Salis, University of Sydney

Dietary guidelines broadly recommend a daily intake of 10,000 kilojoules (2,400 calories) for men and 8,000 kilojoules (1,900 calories) for women. But what do these figures mean in the context of the number of kilojoules or calories you personally need to consume to attain and maintain a healthy body weight?

I’m going to stick with kilojoules in this article because kilojoules – not calories – are the metric unit for measuring energy, just as kilograms – not pounds – are the metric unit for measuring body weight.

Much of the public think malpractice insurance is a big cost of health care and so they rightly think that if there were reasonable checks on lawsuit judgments health care would be affordable without government intervention.
89 percent of young people in one region of Spain own their first mobile phone before they reach the age of 13 and a recent study has analyzed the use of information and communication technologies by using a sample of 5,538 students from the Vallès Occidental region of Catalonia.

The study, based on surveys taken in the 2010/2011 academic year, finds links between school failure and an elevated use of computers at home. It also correlates an intensive use of video devices with the consumption of toxic substances.