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Feeling no pain: plants were first to let it happen

Age of Herbals somewhere  during  1565 in this part of globe saw many medical man searching...

Sitopaladi churna is an ayurvedic medicine for cough and cold

Sitopaladi churna is an ayurvedic medicine for cough and cold and sneezing nose. A little portion...

Ethnobotany and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi)

The term 'ethnobotany' was first applied by Harshberger in 1895 to the study of plants used by...

Gene, gene expression, gene silencing and RNAi

Gene Expression?–What is a Gene?A gene codes for a homogeneous ‘functional unit’ – classically...

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Ashwani KumarRSS Feed of this column.

Professor Emeritus ,Former Head of the Department of Botany, and Director Life Sciences, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. 302004, India At present freelance consultant with Bioenergia. Spain and... Read More »


In his book  Essay on population Malthus’s 1798 predicted  that  population growth will soon outpace food production. Ecologist Paul Ehrlich’s 1968  wrote in his book: The Population Bomb predicted that the world will undergo famines in 1970s, hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs embarked upon now.  It is too late!!! It did not happen.  However  by some surprise or scientific achievements this did not   happen  but to say it will  never happen will be far from truth.

Starting from point mutations and gene mutations to chromosomal aberrations , molecular markers, to cultivars, species and genera and phyla, all living organisms make biodiversity of an area.
Landscapes are bound to change if population is growing and demand for housing is increasing and industry and home require food, fodder, and fuel that is obtained from forests legally or illegally. What should be done to prevent biodiversity loss? 

A careful preparation of the biodiversity of an existing area before some development has to start can be done with use of local flora and once a list is prepared the plant associations and ecosystems parameters understood the practice can provide clue to what should come after the development has been completed. Preserve nature for which a person visits hills . It's highly technical work and needs the expertise of taxonomists and botanists and ecologists alike. 
Will  it happen ? 



A genome is all the DNA in anorganism, including its genes.

•       Comparative Sequence Sizes (Bases)

•       Escherichia coli(bacterium) genome 4.6 Million

Botanical origin      :  Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

English name          :  Indian ginseng, Winter cherry

Family                     :  Solanaceae

Synonyms               :  Physalis somnifera

Common Indian names :

 Hindi         :  Asgandh

Sanskrit       : Ashvagandha, Balada, Gandhpatri, Kamrupini, Vajini

Melvin Calvin at Berkeley in 1945 showed that Chlorella could take up 14CO2 and produce 3-phosphoglycerate. 
 This article is for wider audience interested to know that carbon fixation cycle  is not “Dark reaction”  or  ” Light independent carbon fixation cycle” but is "Light dependent Carbon fixation".

Calvin cycle enzymes are present in mesophyll cells of C3 plants but they are absent from mesophyll cells of C4 plant.
 In C4 plants the RuBISCo is present and active in Bundle sheath cells only where they fix CO2 during day time.