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Feeling no pain: plants were first to let it happen

Age of Herbals somewhere  during  1565 in this part of globe saw many medical man searching...

Sitopaladi churna is an ayurvedic medicine for cough and cold

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Ethnobotany and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi)

The term 'ethnobotany' was first applied by Harshberger in 1895 to the study of plants used by...

Gene, gene expression, gene silencing and RNAi

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Ashwani KumarRSS Feed of this column.

Professor Emeritus ,Former Head of the Department of Botany, and Director Life Sciences, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. 302004, India At present freelance consultant with Bioenergia. Spain and... Read More »


Photosynthesis inplants can fall into three types C3 , C 4 and CAM.

C3 photosynthesis:

Photosynthesis is conversion of light energy into chemical energy utilizing chlorophyll (  LHC II.PS II and LHC I  PS I ) along with water and generating ATP, reducing NADP+ to NADPH + H+  and photolysis of water with release of Oxygen.  

Earlier Photosynthesis was divided into two type of reactions: Light reactions and dark reactions. 

Organisms can be divided into autotrophs, which can synthesize their own food using inorganic minerals, and heterotrophs which require organic food.  Plants produce organic compounds from simple compounds but cannot produce so-called “organic food” from “organic products”. The heterotrophs can do it and most plants are not heterotrophs. Plants are autotrophs. Hence all labels of “Organic food “ are misnomer untils and unless someone explains what is meant by “organic food”  and “Organic farming”.

Here the basic process of production of food by plants is  presented in a simplified way. 

In recent years, international climate  policy has increasingly focused  on limiting temperature rise,as opposed  to achieving greenhouse-gas-concentration-related  objectives.  The agreements reached at the United Nations  Framework Convention on Climate Change conference in Cancunin 2010  recognize that countries  should take urgent action to limit the increase in global  average temperature  to less  than  2 ◦ C relative to pre-industrial  levels. 

 "Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, Vegetable oils, Biomethanol, Pyrolysis oils, Biogas, Biohydrogen. Biodiesel: Technically, Mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock such as vegetable oils and animal fats for use in Compression Ignition engines”. 
The definition eliminates pure vegetable oils. Depending on the feed stock it may be referred as : – Soybean methyl ester - SME or SOME – Rape methyl ester - RME – Fatty acid methyl ester - FAME (a collective term including both of the above). – Vegetable oil methyl ester - VOME yielding plants provide bio-diesel. 
When I received the message from Frau Christian Plachta an associate  at the Institute   yesterday “Pflanzenernährung mitgeteilt, dass Herr Konrad Mengel am 12.07.2012 im Alter von 82 Jahren verstorben ist. Die Trauerfeierfindet am Donnerstag, den19.07.2012 um 14:30 Uhr in der Kirche in Pohlheim-Watzenborn statt” meaning that “ Institut of Plant Nutrition informs that Professor Dr Konrad Mengel has expired on 12.07. 2012 at the age of 82 years and the “Trauerfeier”   assembly will take place  on 19.07.2012 at 14.30 in Church from Pohlheim-Watzenborn.

Global climate change has stimulated efforts to reduce CO2 emissions. Photosynthetic organisms use solar energy to generate reducing equivalents and incorporate atmospheric CO2 into organic molecules. Cellular phenotype is a manifestation of gene expression levels, metabolic demand, resource availability, and cellular stresses. The variation in raw material for production of biofuels ranges from hydrocarbon yielding plants, non-edible and edible oil yielding plant, corn ,sugarcane to lingo-cellulosic waste to algal biofuels.  Currently, cellulosic biofuels and algal biodiesels   are prominent biological approaches to sequeste rand convert CO2.