**NEW THEORIES OF COSMOLOGY**for

*OPEN DISCUSSION*History of the science always showed that the science is like a mirage. People will think that science has reached to an end ,there is no further discoveries etc,. But all the time we found that still we are at the begining only and l there is so much to go.

Let us cultivate some of the potential ideas for further development of science.

**Double Relativity Effect and Film theory of the Universe**

**ABSTRACT**Defined an imaginary group of particles called ‘Non Conventional particles’ and concluded a concept called ‘Double Relativity Effect’ gives a formula v

_{L}=v

_{o }where v

_{L }is linear velocity of rotating particle at relativistic speed. v

_{o}is classical velocity at that speed and =1/[1-(v

_{o}/c)

^{2}]. Also it has been concluded that the relativistic factor for ‘Double Relativity Effect’ should be as

_{c}= 1 /[1-(2v

^{2}/ c

^{2}].

A second dimension for time has been introduced as “T

_{true}” which explains a fundamental problem of ‘Big-Bang’ model. Thus a new theory for the origin of universe has been introduced and was concluded, as the flow of time is not continuous. It is quantized. Each quanta of time ‘t’=1.2x10

^{-41 }/ K seconds. Later in forth coming papers it is revised as t = 1.557 x 10

^{-41}/K sec. A new model of space time has been introduced, which described the gravity and anti gravity

forces of matter by equations ‘Vd =K’ and ‘V=Hd’ where ‘K’ is ‘Siva’s constant’. As per the forth coming papers finally revised value of K= 2.0275x10

^{2}sqmt / sec. ‘H’ is Hubble’s constant.

Introduced a new equation showing the relation between mass of universe(M

_{U}), and minimum mass of any celestial body (M

_{B}) to form Black hole in stellar evolution i.e. (M

_{U})(M

_{B})= 5.33x10

^{80}kg

^{2}. Finally revised equation is M

_{B}. M

_{U}= 1.91x10

^{79}kg

^{2}.

**Conclusions&Further Research**

**1 Fifth dimension of the Universe :-**

“Space-time Continuum is with three-dimensional space and ‘time’ as a forth dimension. If we suppose this time as ‘T_{false} ’ then there will exist a ‘T_{true}’ as a fifth-dimension for this universe . There may exist several dimensionsin between ‘T_{false} ’ and ‘T_{true} ’ but they are all neglected . There exist a ‘T_{true}’ for each ‘T_{false} ’ and in terms of ‘T_{false}’ , ‘T_{true} ’ is always zero.

If we see the whole universe with five dimensions as mentioned above and if we imagine that we are out of whole universe and the universe is before us then we can find that the universe is nothing means, not even empty space.

**2 Double Relativity Effect :-**

‘NC Particle’ is an imaginary particle whose velocity is constant for all inertial frames of reference. If the absolute velocity of a ‘NC Particle’ is ‘V_{NC}’ then its observed velocity V =V_{NC} _{c} where _{c} =1/(1-2V_{NC}^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2} and ‘_{c}’ is a relativistic factor for ‘ Double Relativity Effect’

Also if a particle which is rotating with a linear velocity ‘V_{0}’ then its velocity ‘V’ = V_{0} _{c} Where _{c} =1/(1-2V_{0}^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2}

**3. Quantization of Universal time :- **

Universal time is not continuos. It is Quantized. The ‘Quanta’ of time ‘t’ =1.223186388x10^{-41}/K seconds. The revised equation is t = 1.5574096x10^{-41}/K Where ‘K’is Siva's constant . Finally revised value of ‘K’ =2.0275338x10^{2} sqmt/sec and ‘t’ = 7.6813002´10^{-44}sec .

This theory gives a strange philosophy of life. The Fig-5 of the theory shows the model of the universe, which is just like a movie in which films are changing for every ‘t’ seconds. So it is sure that the future is fixed. This is for everything including human life and events. all these are not accidental events all these are fixed previously.

**4 A New model for the Origin of Universe :-**

To avoid ‘Singularity’ and ‘Horizon’ problems in Big-Bang theory a new model of the universe has been suggested and shown in Fig-5a and Fig-5b.

My theory has solved the ‘Singularity’ and ‘Horizon’ problems of Big-Bang theory. But my theory says that the expansion of matter is not because of explosion of cosmic egg, but because of the natural force existed around any massive body which are attractive and repulsive and varies with the distance from centre of mass as explained in the theory.

**5 Gravity and anti gravity forces :-**

As concerned with universe the expansion of matter was explained by 'V=Hd' where H is Hubbles Constant and 'V" is Velocity of the receding Galaxy. Contraction was explained by 'Vd= K' Where 'K' is Siva's Constant = 1.16x10^{2} m^{2} /Sec. Finally revised value of ‘K’ =2.0275338x10^{2} sqmt/sec. These are anti-gravity and gravity forces for the matter of the universe. The force of attraction or

repulsion between two points of the universe at distance ‘d’ with each other is equivalent to the velocity given by the equations and is equivalent to the final velocity exerted due to that force. Here the velocity is absolute.

**6 New Cosmological Constants**

With the help of equations mentioned in the paper ‘Double Relativity Effect and its Applications the value of Siva’s constant ‘K’ has been calculated as 1.164135058x10^{2 }sqmt/sec. Forth coming papers revised the value of ‘K’ as 2.0275x10^{2 }sqmt/sec. The conceptual conclusion shows that the theoretical value of Hubble’s constant is 5.2225746x10^{-20}/sec. The mass of the universe has been calculated as 6.448233042x10^{48} kgs.This paper also suggests that there may be a chance of correction in mass of‘Local group i.e. M_{G}’. Thus ‘M_{G}’ may effect the quantity

‘M_{B}’ Where ‘M_{B}’ is mass of any celestial body to form a black hole. Thus Chandra shekar’s Limit has been arrived through ‘Double Relativity Effect’. Forthcoming paper elaborated the calculations substantially. Finally revised values of M_{G} and M_{B }are 5.079x10^{42} Kgs and 2.962 x 10^{30 }Kgs respectively.

**7 The Heart of the God**

With the help of equations and concepts derived from ‘Double Relativity Effect’ and ‘New Cosmological Constants’, four-dimensional space time continuum of General Relativity has been treated as three dimensional space-time fluid almost in a shape of sphere. It was named as‘Heart of God’ since it fluctuates for every 1.05 x 10^{-43} sec (Later it is revised as 7.68 x 10^{-44} sec) like human heart. Due to this heart beat the matter will be created continuously on its surface and the old matter will be vanished. The density of matter will be always in steady state and the density has been calculated as 4.542157x10^{-42} kg m^{-3} sec^{-1}.This is similar result with ‘Steady State Theory’ of cosmology. Thus it supports steady state theory and also explains, the 2.7^{o}k microwave background radiation as the temperature of ‘Heart of God’. This concept has a wide range of applications, from particle physics to cosmology. Forth coming paper will give more and more new ideas based on this paper.

**8 The Grand Proof Equation**

Lot of equations were mentioned in the paper ‘Double Relativity Effect’. ‘New Cosmological constants’ have been derived with the help of those equations. But the constants derived or solved from the equations of Double Relativity Effect are not satisfying the equations themselves. A little bit confusion is there. This confusion is due to a missing equation. Later with the help of the concept ‘Heart of God’ a new equation has been derived. It is the ultimate and absolute proof equation for earlier equations and concepts. So it has been named as ‘Grand Proof’ equation.

The ‘Grand Proof’ equation is

K^{2}^{ }H

v_{min} v_{max}^{3} = ----------

t

The ‘GP equation’ is the ultimate proof for correction of data and the values of quantities derived

‘in ’Double Relativity Effect’ and ‘New Cosmological Constants’.

**9 ****Chandrasekhar,s Limit’ through GP equation**

With the help of the parameters of ‘Heart of God’ and ‘Grand Proof equation’ all the equations derived by ‘Double Relativity Effect’ has been reviewed once again and the constants derived by

them have been revised in order to satisfy Grand Proof equation and other equations of ‘Double relativity effect’.

The revised values are:

‘Time quanta’ (t) = 7.681 x 10^{-44} sec

Mass of our local group( M_{G}) = 5.079x10^{41} Kgs

Siva’s constant (K) = 2.0275 x 10^{2} sqmt /sec

The Mass of any celestial

body to become black hole (M_{B}) = 2.962x10^{30} kgs

= 1.489 solar mases

Here

‘M_{B}’ is nothing but ‘Chandrashekar’s Limit’. Thus the paper has concluded the exact value of Chandrashekar’s Limit in an unconventional and new method of approach.

**10 Interpretation of ‘NC particle’ in Modern physics**

An attempt to give profound physical meaning of NC particle has been done. The interaction between NC particles explains the exchange of basic building blacks of matter and the physical relation between quantums of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. This paper also gives information regarding the frequency range in which the gravitational and electromagnetic fields can be exchangeable. This paper is useful to get new concepts like “K-Suryon Theory” and “K-Suryon Effect”.

**11 K-Suryon theory*** *

With the help of previous papers “The Heart of the God” and “Interpretation of NC particle in modern physics” , a new concept ‘K-Suryon theory’ has been introduced and the end product is prediction of a new particle called “K-Suryon” which is the most elementary particle by which all the elementary particles are made up of. Mass of the K-Suryon is 1.1542x10^{-64 }kgs and the charge of K-Suryon is 2.03 x 10^{-53} coulombs. “K-Suryon” will be with +ve and –ve charges.

**12 The K-Suryon Effect**

When an electromagnetic radiation of ‘’ hertzs passes through an electromagnetic field created by a coil having a voltage of ‘V’ volts and a resistance of ‘R’ ohms will be reduced to ‘_{o}’ hertzs. Related by equation _{o} = - K (V/R) where ‘K’= 5.922591×10^{-5 } ohms/volt-sec

Here ‘K’ is k-suryon constant derived by K-SURYON EFFECT .This reduction in the frequency is explained as the conversion of frequency in to mass surrounded by gravity field. Here the wave length will not be changed since the total energy of the wave is constant. This phenomenon is applicable in specified limits called elastic limit of the wave. A preliminary experimental set up has been suggested to prove this effect. Thus the experiment will explains the exchange of forces between gravity and electromagnetism through “K-Suryon Theory” . The ‘K-Suryon’ is the most elementary particle predicted by ‘K-Suryon’ theory with mass 1.1542196x 10^{-64} kgs. and charge 2.03003x 10^{-53} coulombs coulombs.

**13 An approach to Quantum Theory and General Relativity through classical theo**

The ‘K-Suryon Effect’ explains the interaction between gravity and electromagnetic forces. The same ‘K-Suryon Effect’ when applied to black holes, the effect has explained as a new concept, which explains the gravity of ‘General Relativity” in a classical way. The classical equation for space-time is ‘md^{2 }=constant’. Thus further analysis on this way concluded that the four dimensional space-time is a three-dimensional fluid in which existing three-dimensional space is considered to be two – dimensional surface of fluid. The density of the three- dimensional

space-time fluid has been calculated as 9.6033923x10^{62 }kg / m^{3}

**14 Life-A force of Nature**

With the help of Double Relativity Effect and film theory of Universe of physics ,a new analysis has been done and concluded that Universe is manifested with films which are changing at the rate of 1.3x10^{43 } films/sec. Living and non living things are changing their positions in the universe due to this film change of nature. A signal is transmitting to all living organisms to act according to the film change of the universe. Energy is a combination of electromagnetic, gravity and life forces or fields and can exchange each other with in some limits. DNA is like an electronic circuit through which the universal life signals travels to give life to cell

**Note ;-**

All the concepts, equations and constants derived by this theory is based on the data given bellow

Velocity of light in vacuum 'C'=2.99792458x10^{8}mt/sec

Universal Gravitational constant 'G'=6.6720x10^{-11} m^{3}/Kg.sec^{2}

Mass of the sun =332958x5.976x10^{24}Kgs

Mass of our 'local group' of galaxies 'M_{G}'=650X10^{9} solar masses

=1.293342x10^{42}Kgs.

Hubble's constant 'H'=1.7604x10^{-18}/sec.

This data has been taken from the already established results.

All the equations derived by this theory is in terms of Siva's constant 'K' whose value was not mentioned in this paper, but it has been calculated as 1.16x10^{2} m^{2}/sec. Finally revised value of

‘K’ =2.0275338´10^{2} sqmt/sec, Which will be presented in the next paper in which the accuracy and relation of Siva's constant 'K', Hubble's constant 'H' and the mass of our 'local group' 'M_{G}' has been discussed.

References:

1 Kodukula, S. P.: Heart of the God with Grand proof Equation - A classical approach to quantum theory (ISBN 978-0-557-08995-6).Lulu.com,Raleigh,North Corolina (2009)2. Kodukula,S.P.:Cosmological focus on Particle Physics and Genetics(ISBN978-0-557-07724- 3). Lulu.com, Raleigh, North Corolina (2009)

3. Kodukula,S.P.: Double Relativity Effect&Film Theory Of the Universe (ISBN 978-0-557- 07712-0) Lulu.com, Raleigh , North Corolina (2009)

4.Kodukula,S.P.:A Newtype of Black Holes for Wave Genetics (ISBN978-0-557-64247-2), e-book, Lulu.com,Raleigh,North Corolina (2010)

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