Recent Planck spacecraft observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) – the fading glow of the Big Bang – have highlighted a discrepancy between cosmological results and  predictions from other types of observations. The CMB is the oldest light in the Universe, and its study has allowed scientists to accurately measure cosmological parameters, such as the amount of matter in the Universe and its age. But an inconsistency arises when large-scale structures of the Universe, such as the distribution of galaxies, are observed.

By combining results from the Planck spacecraft and measurements of gravitational lensing, in order to deduce the mass of ghostly sub-atomic particles called neutrinos, observations of the Big Bang and the curvature of space-time have accurately measured the mass of these elementary particles for the first time.

Neutrinos interact very weakly with matter and so are extremely hard to study. They were originally thought to be massless but particle physics experiments have shown that neutrinos do indeed have mass and that there are several types, known as flavors by particle physicists. The sum of the masses of these different types has previously been suggested to lie above 0.06 eV (much less than a billionth of the mass of a proton). 

Credit: arXiv:1308.5870

In a recent paper, Richard Battye, from The University of Manchester School of Physics and Astronomy, and co-author Dr Adam Moss, from the University of Nottingham, have combined the data from Planck with gravitational lensing observations in which images of galaxies are warped by the curvature of space-time.  The work used gravitational lensing data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey, the European Space Agency’s Planck spacecraft and the South Pole Telescope.

They conclude that the current discrepancies can be resolved if massive neutrinos are included in the standard cosmological model. They estimate that the sum of masses of neutrinos is 0.320 +/- 0.081 eV (assuming active neutrinos with three flavors).

Battye said, “We observe fewer galaxy clusters than we would expect from the Planck results and there is a weaker signal from gravitational lensing of galaxies than the CMB would suggest.  A possible way of resolving this discrepancy is for neutrinos to have mass. The effect of these massive neutrinos would be to suppress the growth of dense structures that lead to the formation of clusters of galaxies.”

Moss concluded, “If this result is borne out by further analysis, it not only adds significantly to our understanding of the sub-atomic world studied by particle physicists, but it would also be an important extension to the standard model of cosmology which has been developed over the last decade.”

Preprint: Richard A. Battye, Adam Moss, 'Evidence for massive neutrinos from CMB and lensing observations', arXiv:1308.5870. Citation: Richard A. Battye and Adam Moss, 'Evidence for Massive Neutrinos from Cosmic Microwave Background and Lensing Observations', Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 051303 6 February 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.051303