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    Components Of Mind According To Ancient Scriptures Of India
    By Siva Prasad | April 9th 2009 12:36 AM | 10 comments | Print | E-mail | Track Comments
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    ABSTRACT: The components (or faculties) of mind according to ancient scriptures are explained with inferences and interpretations. Connection of the components with states of mind known as dreamless sleep, sleep with dreams, wakefulness, trance and para-trance are given. Analogy of the working of the components with the parts of a computer, and with feedback control systems in Electrical Engineering are given. Through analysis, it is shown that the spine works like the CPU of a computer. 1. INTRODUCTION No metaphysical problem is more vigorously discussed by the present day psychologists than that of mind and body. Most of us assume that all thinking takes place in the brain. It is only since a few decades that psychologists are treating body and mind as a single unit called psycho-somatic system. This led to the development of new subjects like Psycho-biology and Psycho-neuro-immunology. Modern medicine has recognized the brain-spine system as a single unit, but it does not assign thinking functions to any part of the spine. It is now known that even when a considerable amount of brain is removed through surgery, a person can still have reasonable mental abilities and can lead a near normal life. Modern research found that one region in brain can perform several tasks and so can compensate for the loss of damage of another region. On the contrary, surgical removal of some 'safe' parts from womb of women is known to cause problems of mind like dementia. Then, what are the components of mind and where are they located? The present paper tries to provide some information in this line, using interpretations of the principles given in ancient scriptures of India. Indians put their hand on the chest when they say "I am saying this from the depths of my Manas". Manas (rational mind) is a common word used in India, and no one shows his head when he uses that word. The Europeans have an esoteric tradition that mind exists independently of the physical brain, and thoughts become known to a person through the brain [1]. During the 1970s, neurologists became increasingly dissatisfied with the epiphenomenalism [2] theories of mind and brain. More scientists came to suspect that mind and brain were different in a kind and could interact. 2. COMPONENTS OF MIND Carl Jung distinguished persons according to four primary functions of mind - thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition - one or more of which predominated in any given person. According to ancient Hindu scriptures, the various components (or faculties) of mind are [3,4]: Ahamkaara (Self-sense): The need that "I have to survive" originates here. The sense of smell is connected with this center. It has the lowest vibration of energy among the components of mind. Some of the traits of this center are similar to the influences of planet Saturn according to astrology. This center works dominantly on Saturday. Chitta (Emotion): It deals with the particular. Subconscious instincts like "I am hungry", "I am thirsty", and "I have to sleep" originate here. This center is connected with emotional thoughts like fantasies, artistic inspiration, and biological needs. The sense of taste is connected with this center. It has higher vibration of energy than Ahamkaara. Some of the traits of this center are similar to the influences of planet Venus according to astrology. This center works dominantly on Friday. Manas (Reason): It deals with the general. Manas is connected with rational thinking, and mental interaction with others. Conscious thoughts of will-power like "I have to do this", "I do not want to do this", "I can not tolerate this" originate here. We know that a person always shows his chest, and never shows his head, when he utters such expressions. This center is connected with traditions and social needs. Manas lists out the applicable pros and cons of the subject under consideration, and suggests the practical possibilities. The sense of touch is connected with this center. It has higher vibration of energy than Chitta center. Some of the traits of this center are similar to the influences of planet Mercury according to astrology. This center works dominantly on Wednesday. Buddhi (Intellect): It deals with deliberation of the pros and cons using discrimination to determine on a subject [5,6]. This center gives out the judgment after considering what is emotional and what is rational. Buddhi deals with a person's normal abilities . Thoughts like "I do not have enough resources (or energy) to handle this situation", " This is some thing not known to me before, but I can manage it", and "I can do it, but I have to think again whether I should do it" originate here. This center has the ability to balance and control other parts of mind. The sense of seeing is connected with this center. It has higher vibration of energy than Manas center. The traits of this center are similar to the influences of planet Jupiter according to astrology. This center works dominantly on Thursday. Jnaata (Knowing): It deals with a person's extra-ordinary abilities. Instability and restlessness are it's characteristics. Commands for doing physical actions are given by this center. The sense of hearing is connected with this center. It has higher vibration of energy than Buddhi center. The traits of this center are similar to the influences of planet Mars according to astrology. This center works dominantly on Tuesday. It is known to many that more quarrels are likely to take place on Tuesday than any other day of the week. Jnana (Knowledge): Modern medicine knows that direct stimulation of the surface of the brain (the cortex), while the patient is conscious on the operating table during surgery, has the effect of bringing long forgotten experiences back to awareness. Removal of specific parts of the brain abolishes the retention of specific experiences in memory. The pineal gland in the brain is the seat of Jnaana center which controls memory, knowledge, and serenity. It is the seat of personality with which a person is born. Stability and peace are it's characteristics. The sixth sense is connected with this center. It has higher vibration of energy than Jnaata center. The traits of this center are similar to the influences of planet Moon according to astrology. Jnaana center works dominantly on Monday. This center is connected with beginnings. Most cultures consider that the beginning day for a week long work is Monday. It is a fact that most cultures named days of the week after the same planets. When the memory and knowledge stored at this center is accessed during information processing, the common man assumes that the thinking process is taking place in the brain. The centers of these parts of the mind are located on the spine. The Ahamkaara center is located at the base of the spine. The Chitta center is located behind the private organ. The Manas center is located behind the thymus gland. The Buddhi center is located behind the navel. One writer located Buddhic plane [2] in the fourth chakra. The Jnaata center is located behind the throat. In the study of army veterans with spinal-cord injuries, researchers found that they can become emotional but they do not feel it - they do not have the bodily heat that they used to have before the injuries. Ahamkaara, Chitta, Manas, Buddhi and Jnaata centers are the seats of elements Earth, Water, Air, Fire, and Aakasa respectively. Some modern authors connect element Earth with stability and practicality, element Water with sensitiveness, emotions and melancholy, element Air with communicative and sanguine thinking, and element Fire with activity and power. The Buddhist text Skanda says that the five elements of creation sum up the whole of an individual's mental and physical existence in five levels. Hindu philosophical texts described Sukshma Sareera (subtle body), Stoola Sareera (gross body) and Kaarana Sareera (causal body). They refer to the components of mind in the body - Chitta, Manas and Jnaana respectively. The Sukshma Sareera (subtle body) is called Linga Sareera (private organ) in some texts to indicate it's location. The theosophy describes seven planes [2] of consciousness or components of mind. Some medieval Europeans wrote that mind has a number of faculties such as perceiving, comparing, thinking, recalling and discrimination which contribute to knowing. It is known to many persons at present that knowing involves (1) sensation (or stimulus) (2) analysis (or imagination), (3) synthesis (or interpretation), and (4) evaluation (or justification). These phases are carried out by Ahamkaara, Chitta, Manas and Buddhi centers respectively after accessing the Jnaana center through Jnaata center. 3. STATES OF MIND The Upanisads define the following states of mind: Sushupti (Dreamless sleep): This is the unconscious state. Ahamkaara center controls this state. Nidra (Sleep with dreams): This is the subconscious state. Chitta center controls this state. For this reason, we feel the action of Chitta center only indirectly. Modern psychology says that subconscious is the source of phantasy and dreams. F.W.H. Myers wrote that subliminal self [2] (beneath the threshold or subconscious mind) could perceive sensations and emotions, and could work in cooperation with normal conscious mind. Jaagruti (Wakefulness): This is the conscious state. The lungs are said to be 'awake' because the heart-lung system continues to work even in a person who has gone into sleep or coma. Manas center controls this state. Hence we point towards the chest for all our conscious thoughts and intentions. Tureeyam (Trance): Buddhi center controls this state. It is a known fact that not all persons can be induced into trance. Women in general are said to excel in inducing trance, and also to go into that state easily and deeply. A woman is said to throw her trance inducing looks into the eyes of a man of her liking, and Buddhi center of that man goes into Nidra or Sushupti for a period depending upon the intensity of her looks. It is to be remembered here that the sense organ which is under the control of Buddhi center is the eye. Modern science knows that a person under trance can readily distinguish between two 'identical' blank sheets of paper - by recognizing minor blemishes or differences in the grain. Tureeya Ateeta (Para-trance): This state is known as 'that which goes beyond trance' or 'that which annihilates trance'. Jnaata center controls this state. If trance is a female dominated state, para-trance is a male dominated state. Experiences of this state happen mostly in men, and that too in a small percentage of people. Some achievable levels of this state can be experienced through devotional dance, Dyana (meditation), chanting of Mantras, and Tapas (austerity). Rare experiences like religious enlightenment and spiritual visions are examples of this state. In This center is connected with charisma or personal magnetism observed in some men. Ananda (Joy): This is the super-conscious state. The Vedic texts describe it as Sat-Chit-Ananda (truly felt joy). This is the timeless and spaceless transcendental state which is variously known as relaxed alertness, higher awareness, great happiness, abundant peace, sublime elation, tranquility, serenity, ecstacy or bliss depending on the level of experience. The Jnaana center is connected with this state. Superconscious mind [2] is regarded as the source of much of the inspired writing and speaking. Some modern western musicians wrote that music is a higher revelation than wisdom and philosophy. Some ancient Hindu texts wrote that music transcends all limitations of language and races. It is known to many of us that babies, animals and even snakes enjoy listening to music. Poets described that soft music moves the chord within like a moon beam that tranquillizes the mind, and acts like an orison. Modern para- psychology knows that crops give better yields if soft music is played in the fields regularly. Katha Upanisad described the connection between Chitta, senses, and sense objects like money and pleasure (1.3.10): "Indriya (senses, semen) gets overcome by Artha (money, pleasures). Higher than Artha is Manas, and higher than Manas is Buddhi. Higher (than all these) is the state of bliss connected with soul" Sushipti, Nidra and Jagruti are commonly experienced by all. Tureeyam is an uncommon state; existence of plasma state of matter in nature is also uncommon. The five components of mind can become unconscious, subconscious or conscious; either independently or collectively in varying degrees of intensities. That would make up for the widest range of personalities that we observe. Elements of Nature are called 'created' elements because they were created from Sakti - the energy of nature. Sakti is the cause for the first beginning - the creation. Modern science also agrees that all matter was created from energy. The Jnaana center is connected with Sakti (energy) and time. 4. ANALYSIS OF WORKING AND INTERACTION OF THE COMPONENTS Ahamkaara (Self-sense) center: In Sanskrit, Aham means 'I'. Ahamkaara is the technical terminology word, used in ancient Hindu scriptures on mind, to give the meaning 'component of mind connected with I'. The words self-centeredness, self-concept, self-deception, self-defense, self-doubt, self-image, self-importance, self-interest, self-justification, self- limitation, self-love, self-opinion, self-pity, self-possession, self-preservation, self-protection, self-regard, self-sacrifice, and other similar words which describe the basic concepts connected with the self nearly explain the workings of this center. Ahamkaara is also connected with conservation, inferiority complex, knowledge of an illiterate, and latent mental potential to recognize the unseen. In Kundalini Yoga texts, the base of the spine is called 'Moola Chakra' (root center, primitive part of mind, or that part of mind with which a person is born) or Aadhara Chakra (foundation center or the basic part of mind which is used as basis for all further learning). Yoga exercises aim at awakening of dormant abilities from the unconscious component of mind at this center. Ahamkaara is described as the most complicated of all components of mind because it contains seed forms of all the other components of mind and assuredly something beyond. Yoga texts say that this is the seat of undifferentiated Karma accrued through all past lives. A differentiated part of this Karma becomes Punya (virtue) and Papa (vice) which affects the present life. This center is the seat of the element Earth. It controls the processing of solids in the body, and interaction of the body with the solids out side the body. The " beastly" requirements to sort out the elementary properties of an object like " danger - no danger", "edible - inedible", "warm - cold", "large - small", "far - near" and the like are processed at this center. For example, one-day-old chicks can unfailingly distinguish a flying duck from a hawk, although they have never seen either. Chicks rush to take refuge even if a stuffed hawk is made to slide on a string over them. This center is connected with self-protection, self-defense or Fight-or-Flight mechanism needed for survival of the body. It has the inherent capacity to restrain annihilation of the body and preserve the self identity. It works like a very large fly-wheel rotating at a slow speed. If you throw a small stone on it, it will absorb the small momentum of change imposed by the stone, and continues it' s rotation as if it is almost unaffected. The unexpected strength in combat or unusual speed in fleeing from an enemy are provided by this center. Modern medicine has not found the seat in the brain which controls the Fight-or- Flight mechanism. Let us consider a case that a man is walking through a forest at dawn. Some thing has fallen down from a nearby tree. Survival of the body is more important to this center than display of valour. This center decides whether it is possible to fight (or kill that thing) or should the person take to his feet to save himself. The decision to be taken should be a split-second type because survival of the person is more important to this center. If the fallen object does not appear to be a threat to the self, then the received signal is passed on to the next higher center, the Chitta center. Persons in whom this center works actively can be called service givers or diligent workers. They are forgiving and like to keep everyone happy with their services. They are so much work minded that they will not leave any assigned work until they complete it irrespective of the time it takes. Their strength is the commitment to do the assigned job, and no personal requirement can distract them. They see things from everyone else's side. They lack initiative most of the time and wait for others to tell what to do. In hospitals and charitable establishments, they attend to chores selflessly, never minding that these are details that would repel anyone else. Easily imposed upon and often submissive even to those who lack any real authority, they remain under the control of everyone else at work. Chitta (Emotion) center: Plato wrote that opinion (or the sensory information) was a form of apprehension that was shifting and unclear, similar to seeing things in a dream or only through their shadows. Modern psychologists say that passions have the same limitations of senses as they tend toward immediate emotional discharge. Chitta is the quick acting component of the mind which can be termed as leftist or negative thinking part. It is called negative because some psychologists felt that emotion separates the received information into pieces, contains unintentional and contradictory ideas, and lacks internal organization, inner consistency and concrete solutions. On the contrary, some philosophers thought that this is the 'idealistic view' of thinking about a problem. This center can handle divergent thoughts like a multi- channel parallel processing hardware in a super computer. It is known to psychologists that adolescents can hold in mind several dimensions of a topic simultaneously, whereas children can focus on only one dimension at a time. Compared with children, adolescents are more likely to generate different opinions and examine a situation from a variety of prospectives. Chitta is the seat of the element Water. It controls the processing of liquids in the body and interaction of the body with the liquids out side the body. This center is connected with instincts, urges, impulses, desires, imagination, sentiments, intuition, passions, caring, pleasure, exploration, unconventional ideas, moods, insight, superstitions, immodesty, immorality, analysis of details, concern about particular features, capacity to find novel relationships, unrestrained expressions connected with body or mind, molding of past experiences into new constellations of meanings, creation of artistic, poetic and musical works and the like. Art is based on intuition, which is a direct apprehension of reality un-mediated by thought. Thus art cuts through conventional symbols and beliefs about people, life and society, and confronts one with reality itself. Seeing a good work of painting or reading a novel sets waves of emotion in Chitta center. As romantic literature everywhere developed, intuition was praised over reason, and emotions over logic making way for a vast body of literature of great sensibility and passion. Some youths variously describe sex as that which meets the requirements of pleasure urge, emotional fulfillment, passionate craving, instinctive motive, subconscious desire, lustful feeling, or release of pent-up desires. Men of wisdom wrote that likings and desires connected with sex are shrouded in darkness beyond reason. Dictionaries connect the word "desire" with thirst, craving, dream, fancy, feel like, impulse, lust, passion, and urge. They give the meaning of words "crave" and "lust" as "thirst" indicating the connection with the center governed by element Water. Sentiments are described as tender emotions, romantic feelings, preconceived ideas or preconceptions. Passions are known to be connected with subconscious feelings like emotionality, irrational motive, sexual desire, wildness and zeal. Chitta center stores Papa (vice) of a person which affects the present life. The urge to have sex will be higher on Friday than any other day of week. The Sanskrit word for Venus is Sukra which also means semen. Like the semen, Chitta represents an extraordinary spontaneous creative energy which is an independent primordial essence. This center has seeds of past memories and can access Jnaana center for more details of each memory. It may be noted that the expression "sensory indulgence" refers to sexual activity. This center controls the sensitivity of the sense-organs. If the vitality of this center gets reduced due to any reason, the sensitivity of the sense-organs also gets reduced. For example, the sense-organs feel sleepy after an ejaculation in man. Even if the man has very high artistic talents, they also will not respond normally soon after ejaculation. It takes about 40 minutes before some recovery is felt. Even a man of high rationality needs about 20 minutes to become normal and to do complex mathematical calculations after seeing an erotic movie. This center can be compared to a convex lens - it provides insight for the subtle. It's working is similar to Differentiation in mathematics. It helps to observe all the minor details, and each minor detail is given very high importance. In the fallen object case that we are studying, Chitta will help to observe the individual parts of the fallen body as if they are seen through a convex lens. The first phase of the pattern recognition takes place here. It will pass on the original signal along with it's pattern recognition report to it's higher center, the Manas. A creative person is usually very intelligent in the ordinary sense of the term, but often he refuses to let intellect rule; he relies strongly on intuition, and he respects the irrational in himself and others. An artist is said to go to the extremes to divorce himself from environmental constraints. Aristotle wondered "Why is it that all men who are outstanding in philosophy, poetry, or the arts are melancholic?" Many other thinkers over many centuries observed the association of mood swings and intense emotional pain with creative artists. They are the same symptoms described for love-sick persons in romantic literature of ancient India. Psychological studies of highly creative people have observed some tension in terms of such dualities as logic and intuition, the conscious and the subconscious, mental health and mental disorder, the conventional and the unconventional, and complexity and simplicity. Many creative people show a strong interest in apparent disorder, contradiction, and imbalance; they often seem to consider asymmetry and disorder a challenge. At times creative persons give an impression of psychological imbalance, but immature personality traits may beam extension of a generalized receptivity to a wider-than-normal range of experience and behaviour patterns. Such individuals may possess an exceptionally deep, broad, and flexible awareness of themselves. Modern research showed that as adolescents, between 29 and 34 percent of eminent-artists-to-be exhibited psychiatric symptoms compared with 3 to 9 percent of future achievers in the sciences and law. Many artists attested that persons who are mildly maniac can uncover areas of thinking which are normally shrouded in darkness. Modern psychology says that a creative thinker, whether artist, writer, or a designer, is trying to create some thing new, or a conventional thing with a novelty. What ever be the area of specialization, creative thinking involver a considerable amount of subconscious re-arrangement of symbols and images. Nishida Kitaro, after a long struggle with something that was impenetrable to his logic, wrote that pure mental activity - the unity of conscious thought and intuition - ultimately finds itself in the abyss of darkness that envelopes every light of self-consciousness. Even though this darkness is like dazzling obscurity, Kitaro observed that it gives the self some unfathomable depth of meaning and being. Ancient astrologer Satyacharya described Venus as a damsel of 16 years age. Russian researchers have found that highest liveliness in a human body exists at the age of 16 years, and that a person can live for 10000 years if the biological systems are maintained at the same efficiency of working as they are at the age of 16 years. Soon after the completion of 16 years of age, 'brain sand' starts forming in the pineal gland. This can be likened to 'onset of gradual death'. Many fairy tales say that a princess will die on her 16th birth day. This is the reason why adolescents feel subconsciously that they are unique like fairies, invincible in some way, and that no one can understand how they really feel. They also believe that they are the main actors with super personalities and all others are the audience. The sense of uniqueness is their motivating force of life, and also the cause of high suicide rate. The duality of 'age of eternity' and 'onset of gradual death' bothers them subconsciously. Modern researchers found that 15-year-olds not only detect inconsistencies of self across various roles but also are much more troubled by these contradictions than younger or older adolescents. Some older adolescents describe that certain aspects of their mental experience are beyond their awareness or control, indicating the influence of subconscious mind. The Hindu scriptures say that Chitta center is the seat of Prana. The word Prana means life or liveliness. Many modern scientists tried to locate the seat of Life. Some proposed the heart to be the seat of Life. But there are many cases that people revived to life after some hours of stopping of the heart. Some medical experts theorized that a body will not revive after it's brain ceases to emit the electrical signals. Even this theory could not stand the test of truth. Modern medicine knows that the first organ to decompose in a dead body is the private organ. There is not single case in the medical history that a person revived after the private organ started decomposing. Chandogya Upanisad says (VI.5.4): " Water when drunk becomes three fold; it's coarsest portion becomes the urine; it's middle portion the blood, and it's subtlest portion Prana." An adolescent can be cheerful one minute, anxious the next, and then be sarcastic for the one that follows. Men of wisdom wrote that adolescence begins in biology, goes through intense emotional changes and ends in culture. Chitta can be called adolescent's mind because they can notice even minute changes in familiar objects. It may be remembered here that private organ matures during adolescence period. It is a known fact that emotions forge bonds between the infant and her mother, the husband and his wife, and a person with others in the family. This way, the center of creation (the private organ) is also connected with creative ideas and bonds between life forms. However, scientists are not sure how the so called emotional mechanism of the brain works [7]. Some modern philosophers wrote that emotion has a strong physical component which is primarily felt in the body [8]. Some modern writers of books on mind-control described 'emotion' as energy of body in motion. The very meaning of the word 'emotion' is given in some dictionaries as that which causes physiological changes and prepares the body for immediate vigorous action. This effect is attested by many painters and music composers who felt intense sensation in private organ when they created master pieces. Hystera in Greek means 'womb'. History knows that every great discovery contains an irrational element or creative intuition. Orthodox psychology says that such discoveries are the result of ideas arising from the individual's subconscious mind. Persons in whom this center works actively can be called romantic or lazy drifters. When they think of something, it will be more in terms of pictures and less in terms of words. They have the urge for constant but continual attempt to equalize the situations of life. They have many creative ideas. Their intuition is phenomenal, and they can recognize things instinctively. They can magnify trifles. When they are in good moods, they are easy going, very sensitive, imaginative, excitable, sophisticated and charming. They have a craving for excitement that seems innate, which often causes them to go in opposition to their own normal interests. Quite paradoxically, their initial craving becomes horribly unhappy in the very setting that they did so much to create. (It is as if their centers of liking, thinking and doing are not very interactive). Given a choice, they prefer to gravitate to feelings rather than rules of practicality - they are ruled by instinct more than reason. All the argument in the world will simply make them all the more stubborn. They are sympathetic and anxious to learn the views of others, no matter how wide apart their interests are. They display a fascinating charm; quick, ready minds; with an amazing aptitude at solving the problems of others. Often they lavish affection upon those who do not deserve it. They do not hesitate entering into new and unexplored regions, and may go to the extremes to quench their zeal. They have the innate ability to recognize ventures that bring luck and quick success. They are good at arts like theater, music, song, dance and painting. They feel that art is not only inspiration, but it is the essence of life. They are endowed with a religious frame of mind and do not miss a pious duty or holy rite. At other times, they are indecisive, gullible, frivolous, shallow, flirtatious, and easily influenced. Their face expresses a wide range of feelings. They do not show much concern for home and family. They are sensitive to the needs of others and have the gift, which at times appears psychic, of understanding the emotional needs of their companions. Their advises appear to bring luck to some persons. Most of the time, they have the ability to make others feel better about themselves and their innate abilities. They like business situations, and can lose themselves in their goals. They may indulge in romanticism bordering on sentimentality. At times, they like the opposite sex to the extent of promiscuity. Many of them will have a tendency to value every thing in terms of monetary gain. In addition to being intuitive and passionate, they constantly strive towards some kind of spiritual fulfillment. They feel lazy to do an assigned job. Their tendency is to circumvent problems than meet them head on. But with a little push, they become surprisingly energetic to do a great job. (This attitude is similar to the state of penis which normally remains un-erect.) They will always be searching for what is missing in their lives because most of their their notions conflict with reality. Many persons of this type become designers, decorators, sculptors, poets, cosmetologists and fashion experts. Some women of this type may become midwives, college lecturers, editors of women's magazines, sports stars, prostitutes, and witches. Manas (Reason) center: Even after seven decades of research, the seat of reason in the brain still remains a lively subject of debate for researchers of our time. This should necessarily be so because the seat of reason is the lungs which is a spread system that includes skin of the body. Manas is a slow acting component of the mind. We know that most of the people are quick to act on desires, but are slow to learn something consciously. The working of this center can be termed as the rightist or positive thinking part. On the contrary, some philosophers say that a method based on reason alone is a 'mechanistic view' of thinking about a problem. Manas handles convergent thoughts using single-channel integrated processing of information and provides a holistic view. Aristotle wrote that the individual things that men perceive with their senses are but imperfect copies, and that it is necessary merely to be able to say that something is generally true of certain types or groups of things in order to build up a system of knowledge about them. Immanuel Kant wrote that knowledge demanded both that there be acquaintance with particulars and that these be brought under general descriptions. Acquaintance with particulars was always a matter of the exercise of the senses; only the senses could supply intuitions. Every sensory experience is a mixture of a sensory content and a temporal form which is contributed by the (rational) mind. Further, if one formulates a sensory experience into a judgment, then the mind also contributes certain additional objective features: the judgment incorporates ideas of something being a substance or quality of that substance. According to Kant, the raw data of sensory input is only a small part of what constitutes human knowledge and most of it is contributed by the human (rational) mind itself. Manas center will do active exploration of the information provided by Chitta, grasps the essentials, tries to solve the problem using simplification, and provides an abstract model. It is the seat of the element Air. Manas means reason, logic, synthesis and rationality. Manas center deals with defense against physical attacks from other persons. Manas helps a person to speak correctly and to do complex mathematical calculations. This center is connected with conscious thoughts like synthesis, combining, ethics, doubting, examination, foresight, argument, interpretation, common sense, general structures, coherent ideas, planning, tactics, strategies, ambition, jealousy, sacrifice, cunning, marital faithfulness, disciplined systematic thinking, enveloping thoughts, partiality to relatives, suspecting the presence of a person who is hiding, craving to do some physical work, duty-mindedness, dislike for perfumes and swimming, and the like. Since Manas is connected with logic and doubt, it can also be called inner critic, cautioning voice, or moral adviser. Daniel Goleman wrote the following about the faculties of emotion and reason [9]: "In a very real sense we have two minds, one that thinks (the rational mind) and one that feels (the emotional mind). These two fundamentally different ways of knowing interact to construct our mental life. One, the rational mind, is the mode of comprehension we are typical conscious of: more prominent in awareness, thoughtful, able to ponder and reflect. But alongside that there is another system of knowing: impulsive and powerful, if sometimes illogical - the emotional mind .... There is a steady gradient in the ratio of rational-to- emotional control over the mind (way of thinking); the more intense the feeling, the more dominant the emotional mind becomes - and the more ineffectual the rational. .... Ordinarily there is a balance between emotional and rational minds, with emotion feeding into and informing the operations of the rational mind, and the rational mind refining and sometimes vetoing the inputs of the emotions." This center stores Punya (virtue) of a person which affects the present life. In theosophical writings, Manas [2] (faculty of reason) is the intelligence of the individuality which continues from one incarnation to the next. If a person suffers suffocation due to some reason, say accidental exposure to harmful gases in an industry, then normal working of this center gets affected. Similar effect is observed in drunkenness state of a person. Some disturbance in the working of Manas is found in persons who work in rooms filled with pure oxygen. Manas can be compared to a large concave lens - it deals with the gross to provide overall view. It's working is similar to Integration in mathematics. Psychologists know that in emerging adult-hood, self understanding becomes more integrative with disparate parts of the self, so pleasant and enjoyable in adolescence, pieced 'together' more systematically. The second phase of the pattern recognition takes place at Manas center. In the fallen object case, Manas center calls for required pictorial patterns from those stored at the Jnaana center and narrows down the possibilities. It will pass on the original signal along with the pattern recognition report of the Chitta and it's own rational model to it's higher center - the Buddhi. If the thin 'skin' of the lungs is spread on ground, it will approximately occupy the area of a tennis field. It is the largest reservoir of energy in the body. Manas which is connected with lungs also has these qualities; it will consider only the gross aspects, neglects minute details and aims at long term planning. The skin is the extension of that which is formed first in an embryo. This center was given the highest importance in ancient Yoga texts. Psychologists say that the majority of scientists and engineers are non-creative and non-inventive because they use the logic of Manas. Using the reason and logic of Manas center in all our mental activities appears to be highly scientific. Are there any arguments against it? Yes. In the 1930s, Austrian mathematician Godel proved a theorem which became the "Godel theorem" in cognition theory. It states that any formalized 'logical' system in principle cannot be complete in itself. It means that a statement can always be found that can be neither disproved nor proved using the means of that particular system. To discuss about such a statement or to take a decision, one must go beyond that very logic system; otherwise nothing but a vicious circle will result. Psychologists say that any experience is contingent - it's opposite is logically possible and hence should not be treated as contradictory. The Buddhi center does this difficult job of going beyond the problem of logic. In some medieval European drawings, women were likened to upward pointing triangles, and men were likened to downward pointing triangles. Among persons with weight proportionate to their height, men are supposed to have broad chest and women are supposed to have broad loin region (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). Ancient Hindu scriptures say that women in general excel in Chitta center and men in general excel in Manas center. In India, if a man asks his wife to explain her feelings in detail, she would say "Woman's sentiments are beyond the logic of men". Some medieval European books described women as unreasonable (see Fig. 3) and men as less instinctive. Western medicine knows that women are more easily alarmed and emotionally aroused than men. It has been the experience of many in India that the intuition of a woman has helped her husband to take a better decision. Hence the saying that there is a woman behind every successful man. Modern psychology says that the characteristics of convergent thinking is the concern for a particular end result. The thinker gathers information relevant to the problem and then proceeds, by using problem-solving rules to work out a rational solution. The result of convergent thinking is usually a solution that has been previously arrived at by someone else under the same circumstances. The characteristics of divergent thinking is the variety of thoughts involved. When thinking creatively, people tend to think in a divergent manner, thus having many varied thoughts about a problem. At times, the person may drift into autistic thinking, or free association, in which the symbols of thought have private meanings. In the process of this divergent thinking, some useful ideas that would have been missed by concentrating strictly on the problem may occur. Many creative persons may not score high in standard intelligence tests. They have certain specific abilities which they can use in their search for new ideas. They resist conventional approaches that have been determined by others, and would rather do their own thing even if it is unpopular, seems to be rebellious or non-confirming. Chitta center is connected with divergent thinking and Manas center is connected with convergent thinking. Persons in whom this center works actively can be called managers or perfectionists. When they think of something, it will be less in terms of pictures and more in terms of words. They are the best among others in general knowledge and current affairs, and are rarely interested to become experts in any particular specialization or differentiation. They are smart, bold, tactful, cultured, proud, ambitious, aristocratic, and great-hearted. They keep their thoughts and spirits high most of the time. They urge others to 'shine', never giving up hope, and impel them onward and upward even when things are the darkest. They demonstrate fearlessness, honour and persistence in whatever they do. They are persistent, aggressive, ardent in their zeal, and not easily shaken in adversity. They perform their work with speed and precision, and expect others to follow their way. Persons in whom Manas center works dominantly enjoy more with work, discussions with others, and less with rest. (The Japanese language has many words for "work" and no word for "rest".) They certainly like to control others, but never towards evil ends. They look down at any happening or situation from a higher vintage point. They act like big brothers (or sisters) to every one to give right suggestions in any situation. Their face expresses only a small range of feelings. However, they are broad minded, expansive, plain spoken, faithful, and can provide the highest expression of love or sacrifice. They are dualistic in the sense that they can be pompous, patronizing, intolerant, interfering, dogmatic and bossy at the same time. Their innate courtesy can bring out the best of loyalties from their subordinates. They organize the home incredibly well and keep their surroundings as tidy as their minds. They give a very high value to human relationships and exchange of feelings. They usually have many people in their homes, friends or relatives coming and going, and enjoy cooking or caring for them. They seek popularity and are sensitive to the moods of the masses, through which they aim to gain social influence and recognition. They crave for luxury and power. They are drawn to the company of the well-to-do and powerful. They like to shine in social situations and try to dominate others. They prefer to be the center of attention, and give high value to honour, respect and prestige. They have the ability to implement at the right time and make sure that a job is always done well. They rarely feel queasiness and act promptly to promote themselves when the opportunity strikes. Their ideas are expansive and refuse to give up or give in at any time. They do not go after small or second rate accomplishments. In thinking big, they sometimes overlook some minor or obscure details. Their assessment of time and circumstances are usually so correct that they know exactly what needs to be done and by whom. Their energy is best utilized in taking charge, giving orders and getting things done. They are highly principled and have strong views of what is right and what is wrong. They have a high mental integrity with very good memory and try to do the best that is possible in any situation. They are inclined to favouritism. They are more disillusioned than the average if let down by near and dear. They are restless, constantly suffer from some worry caused by others, and rarely accept fate. When a crisis strikes a person, they sometimes refuse to help that person. Further, they may put a few small (and right type of) hurdles in his path. They remain observing him only to see that he develops his innate abilities to tackle the situation with courage and confidence. Most of the people around them obey their commands. They are respected even by strangers. The percentage of persons interested in meditation or Yoga will be lowest in this type. Women of this type have the ability to become ideal housewives and mothers. They have high sense of duty coupled with an innate loyalty. Manas center causes queen- like traits in some women. Such women appear some what masculine in face and body gait. They use logic and reason most of the time, and will have less belief in dogmatic aspects of religion. The energy that emanates from their eyes is sharp and synchronized like a laser beam, and resembles that of a lion. They plan things in advance and execute them with mathematical precision. However, they rarely accept any unrelated person to become very close, and maintain some inner distance. They have forethought and foresight in all their executions. They prefer to commit suicide than to loose honour and die a moral death. Buddhi (Intellect) center: This is the balancing component of mind which gives judgment after assessing leftist and rightist thoughts. It is the seat of the element Fire. Yoga texts define fire as the central channel which balances the left and right channels of the spine. Most people think that element fire is what we see when something is burning. The Ayurveda uses the word Jathara Agni which means gastric fire. This center will not be working with it's normal ability after a heavy dinner, particularly if the meal consists of hard to digest items like fried mutton. It takes about 40 minutes before some recovery is felt. In ancient Hindu scientific terminology, Agni is the fourth state of matter - the plasma state. One may wonder how the plasma, which is made in science laboratories using sophisticated equipment, is also available in the body. The alternative word for Agni is Tejas which indicates that this center is the controller of aura around the living body. Buddhi means decision making. It discriminates between what is fine (Chitta) and what is gross (Manas). This center has the ability to solve contradictions. Buddhi clarifies the doubt about the attributes and nature of a thing expressed by Manas, overcomes mistaken interpretation of what is felt by Chitta, goes through the memory for related experiences stored at the Jnaana center, and provides a settled and correct understanding of a thing. Buddhi does not condemn the urge for pleasures from Chitta center, but takes a view that the pleasures should not be treated as ends in themselves. It is something like the saying that a man should eat to live but not live to eat. Buddhi is connected with decisiveness, moderation, modesty, humanitarian consideration, acceptance of responsibility for process and result, conviction of universal cause-and-effect relationship, ability to abstain from premature conclusions, and reluctance to conflict with certain people and with their habitual ideas. This center controls rhythmic coordination between all components of mind. The working of this center can be compared to a critically damped feed-back control system in Electrical Engineering. It means that when some energy, from an outside source, is imposed on this center, it will continue to vibrate for a long time at a stable rate. The display of valour for a right cause is connected with this center. It is also connected with defense of a person against mental and psychic attacks from other persons. In the fallen object case under study, this center analyzes the received information along with reports sent by Chitta and Manas centers, and makes the final decision whether the fallen object is a snake or some thing which resembles a snake. This center also decides whether the fallen object is some thing not known to the person. It sends the final decision to it's higher center, the Jnaata center, for taking the necessary physical action. Persons in whom this center works dominantly can be called achievers or trailblazers. Men of this type are large-hearted and exhibit a type of shyness. They like to dress with care and taste, never showy, but often reflecting an even puritanical sobriety. Their face expresses only a small range of feelings. They are cheerful, energetic, modest, decisive, self-controlled, and confident in their abilities. They are meticulous, practical and incredibly resourceful and tackle a thing head on. They have profound and wide ranging ideas equipped with foresight and good judgement. They are born intellectuals with a deep and incisive intellect for right understanding. The world of scholarship and research holds a deep interest for them. The qualities of piety, charity and mercy predominate their mind. They aim for bold ventures, noble deeds and high achievements, and are fortunate in attaining their goals of life. They never bow before force or threats, but are easily supplicated and won over by kind treatment, appropriate praise and affection. They are always grateful for any small favour. They are discriminating and exacting about details, and prefer cleanliness and order. Although they are confident in their own opinions, they do not force their convictions upon others to whose ideas they listen patiently. They are respectful to the religious, elders and learned. They work hard to buildup the needed resources. Sometimes, a setback puts such a person on the right track providing good learning from that experience. Those who appear to neglect their wives in their early youth-hood will give all their affection to them in later years. Some of them who are staunch atheists in their youth-hood may become theists in their later years. Persons of this type are the best examples for the Vedic dictum "Asatoma sad gamaya, tamasoma jyotir gamaya" (moving towards nobler traits from the inferior ones). Although they are interested in many branches of knowledge, they are likely to master one branch of learning and become an authority. Their un-tiring activity, coupled with clear vision, critical thinking and dependability will bring them to the forefront sooner or later. They have commendable power of endurance and do not tire easily. They keep a sharp eye out for the right time to make a move. Lack of some experience is normally not a problem for them. They are capable of inventing things if the necessity so demands. They have the courage to stand up for what they believe in, and the initiative to lead others. They are sensitive to their own needs and feelings, but do not make excessive demands for gratification of their own needs. They are great at providing for and protecting people. They never let down persons who trust them in the times of need even if the situation is very difficult to manage. Their decisions are accepted by most of the people around them. Not easily led astray by a pretentious show, they use diplomacy and shrewdness in dealing with others whose motives are less than honorable. When they feel disturbed or frustrated, they take refuge in hard work and incessant activity. Though they are diligent and intelligent most of the time, they also become over critical, harsh, and worry a lot about the persons whom they love most, and can go to any extent to provide the highest expression of love or sacrifice. Persons of this type are found mostly in men. Buddhi center provides kingly traits in some men. The eyes of such men will be smaller than normal. Their glances concentrate on the person with whom they converse and rarely get distracted. They some times possess penetrating eyes which make their shyer companions feel naked and defenceless before them. Their face appears slightly more aged than what they are. The wording in their talk will be clear, precise and to the point. Practical and cautious, they see small things clearly and judge any work by it's end result. They have a knack at seeing the unfolding of a trend before the final result takes shape and predict. They are very good at trend analysis and technological forecasting. (Seers of the yore who predicted future belonged to this type). Men of this type have the ability to become ideal husbands, fathers, and good teachers. They receive good cooperation from wife, children and women. Many of them are ceremonial minded, and take up an interest in philosophy. They have the ability to attract and lead a following. The sense of righteousness and fair-play will be very strong in persons of this type. Australian psychologist Louise Samways designates the energy in human beings to be 'mind-body energy', and describes the connection of Chakra 2 (the center on the spine behind genital organ) with instincts and unconscious mind, and Solar Plexus Chakra with balancing of upward and downward energies to create the 'heat' needed for life [10]. Jnaata (Knowing) center: It is the seat of the element Aakasa. In Sanskrit, the word Aakasa means sky. It represents the fifth state of matter - the nuclear state. Since a very large amount of nuclear particles received by the earth from the sun and other astral bodies is through sky, the name for the element is so given. Many nuclear particles are unstable; hence instability is the key word for this center. Modern psychology says that mentally unstable persons are emotional, dissatisfied, gloomy, and pessimistic. The working of this center can be compared to an under damped feed-back control system in Electrical Engineering. It means that when some energy, from an outside source, is imposed on this center, it will continue to vibrate for a long time at an increasing rate to become unstable, and requires intervention of other centers to quieten it. Soviet researchers found that the thyroid gland puts one electron on each red blood cell in the stream of blood that is going up into the brain. The negative charge of the electron on one red blood cell makes it to repel from the other similarly charged red blood cells. This prevents clotting of blood in the brain. This center controls and monitors production of direct-current (D.C.) electricity in the body. Jnaata means the Knower. The decision taken by the Buddhi center gets known to the Self at this center and is executed here. Signals are sent to various organs of the body for taking the necessary physical action. It will pass on the report on the decision command received from the Buddhi center along with it's report of action taken to it's higher center, the Jnaana center. Modern medicine says that consciousness resides in the reticular formation, a group of cells inside the brain stem - oldest, 'lowliest' region of the brain. Without the reticular formation's altering and activating signals, the brain goes sleepy. Damage to this arousing mechanism can cause coma and sometimes death. Modern psychologist say that a balanced life's development should consist of physical development, aesthetic development, moral development and intellectual development. The mind centers that control these developments are Ahamkaara, Chitta, Manas and Buddhi respectively. The Jnaata center monitors whether these developments are taking place as per one's expectations in the present life, as governed by personality information stored at Jnaana center. We know that every thought, word and deed leaves an impression. These impressions, along with many desires, lie dormant in seed form in the subconscious mind (Chitta) of every one. Jnaata center can arouse them to manifest level into the conscious mind (Manas). Traits like greed, hallucination, delusion, miserliness, superiority complex, sadism and the like are characteristics of Jnaata center. Thoughts of an extremist originate here. Because it is the controller of Sakti at Jnaana center, it can make a man of this type feel that he has all the energy to do just anything. Jnaata center is the place where nerves from the left half of the brain switch over to the right side of the body, and nerves from the right half of the brain switch over to the left side of the body. This center has the ability to balance and control other parts of the body. Accordingly, Jnaata center can govern rhythmic coordination of body parts with music - the dance. Consequently, it is to be expected that Jnaata center disturbs rhythmic coordination between components of mind. Some persons in whom this center works dominantly may exhibit psychotic delusions of ideas like grandeur (I am the Emperor or god of this universe, or I can create live souls using my thoughts), persecution (people are trying to poison me, or strange creatures of darkness are trying to kill me), external control (my thoughts are influenced by radio waves from planet Mars, or cancer cells are forming in my body due to impulses from electricity wires) or depersonalization (I am not a common person anymore, or cells in body are getting rotted away faster like abnormal cancer). Many thinkers over millenia observed the association of mood swings and uncanny skills of athletes with back-handed pathology (or beastly capabilities) for short-term achievement instead of crediting perseverance. Modern psychology knows that self-understanding of adolescents becomes increasingly differentiated to describe themselves according situational variations. For example, a 15-year-old girl might describe herself by using one set of traits in connection with her family, another set with her peers and friends, and yet another set with her lover or lovers. In sum, adolescents are more likely than children to think that they possess several 'different' selves, each one varying to some degree according to a particular role or context. Existence of 'several different selves' may cause 'split personality', 'multiple personality' or 'altered states of consciousness' in some persons. Such persons with lack of unified personality often experience sudden shifts in consciousness, identity, and memory. They detach or dissociate themselves from their immediate circumstances as a means of protecting themselves from overwhelming mental pain or self-damaging behavior. Each of the components of mind may alternately inhabit the person's conscious awareness to the exclusion of the others. Modern psychologists agree that such mental disorders result from dissociation mental processes - the splitting off from conscious awareness and control of thoughts, feelings, memories, will power, and other mental components in response to situations that are painful, or somehow unacceptable to the person experiencing them. Understanding of the the split personality story "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" becomes easy if we remember that planet Mars has the two geographical extreme opposites of elevation in our solar system - the tallest mountain (which is taller than Mt. Everest) and the deepest valley. It is implied that persons who seek higher knowledge of Jnaana center have to pass the tests of negative characteristic traits imposed by Jnaata center. Persons in whom this center works dominantly can be called audacious or emotionally unbalanced. They are energetic persons who seek change and interchange to overcome the feeling of inertness. Their face expresses a wide range of feelings. Their glances are never steady on the persons with whom they converse, and will be looking around for something. (Modern psychology says that 'shifty eyes' or a general lack of eye contact is indicative of serious emotional disturbance.) They are inquisitive, energetic, shameless, crafty, unscrupulous, inconsistent, restless and agitated. Their vital energy is not always as high as their imaginations. Their quickness and short-term adoptability is better than many others, but they get exhausted with a little excessive activity. They are the most changeable of all types, and are always on the go until their energy fails them. They look for abnormal nervous excitations and stimulations, and can get easily addicted to stimulants. They are very ambitious and always try to do something more for themselves. They pursue ideas for their own sake, or get caught up in their own unrealistic fantasies or worries. Ideas tend to crowd their mind many at a time, causing the tendency to craftiness and secretiveness. The very high agility of their thinking makes them deceptive, unreliable, tricky, and hard to pin down. They are indecisive in many situations and rarely bring anything to fruition. In the work of their liking, they can multi-task giving high importance to each task. Inwardly, they are nervous, tense, superficial, inconsistent, and conning. They demand attention, affection, and require much of their loved one's time, energy and money. They can be at once very romantic, yet little touched by love or passion. Persons of this type have many such dualities. The surprising monetary or romantic gains they make in a short term do not lost long. They are worried about their future, and feel that their life span is uncertain. They see threats every whare, often imagining the worst. They rarely trust others. The strong bonds they form with the selected few do not lost long. They find it hard to commit, and do things to excess. They make grandiose plans with little attention to practicality. They feel that they have more virtue than any one around, and want to use it to get as many gains as possible in a short period. Some of them abandon moral inhibitions and exhibit unrestrained behaviour. They can become sadistic monsters of passions and sex. Males of this type feel attracted towards low class females who are older than themselves. Cold lack of sympathy is their exclusive feature. They do have strong religious convictions, but they maintain them entirely separate from their work or business. Persons of this type are found mostly in men. Some men of this type may become cult gurus, commando captains, or leaders of extremists. In the field of sports, these persons can excel others with their agility, precision and split-second responses. Persons of this type have a marked weakness for gambling and have many get-rich-quick ideas. Jnaana (knowledge) center: This center is located at the pineal gland, the third eye. The Yoga and Tantra texts describe this eye as Jnaana Netra (eye of knowledge) or Divya Chakshu (eye that provides access to higher collective psychic energy). The Hindu scriptures also say that Jnaana center is the seat of Mukhya Prana (Prime Prana), Jeeva (liveliness), or Ojas (vital essence). The word Aayus (longevity), used in astrology, was derived from the word Ojas. Western medicine also knows that if the pineal gland is removed through surgery, the person will not survive. This center controls storage of all knowledge. It is the seat of individuality - the totality of a person's way of thinking, nature, attitudes, and characteristics that endure over long periods of time. It deals with higher relationship which transcends all differences of culture, of religion and of race. In learned persons, Jnaana center deals with astrological, metaphysical and philosophical aspects of all knowledge. It is also called Sakti (energy) center because it controls all types energies required for the body and the components of mind. The working of this center can be compared to an over damped feed-back control system in Electrical Engineering. It means that when some energy, from an outside source, is imposed on this center, it will vibrate only for a short period of time and regains it's stable position. Modern medicine knows that the pineal gland influences the pituitary gland which controls all other glands in the body. Jnaana center also controls the outer ' covering' of aura around the body. In spiritually enlightened persons, this center will be working dominantly. Jnaana center is the seat of wisdom which has the seeds of cumulative knowledge gained through all the past lives. In Yoga and Tantra texts, the awakened third eye is said to provide peace of mind that goes beyond all normal understanding, and to give access to higher knowledge. The writers of Vedas and other Sastras received their knowledge through this center. Among all countries in the world, India has inherited the largest number of ancient manuscripts from time immemorial. They were written on the widest range of subjects known to humans. Modern medicine knows that the pineal gland [2] of Indians is larger than that of others. Persons in whom this center works actively can be called peace makers. Most of them are first borns to their parents. They have a great liking for flowers, and they are soft in body and mind like flowers. They are blessed with a well- proportioned figure and lustrous eyes. They love dressing artistically, and a little differently than others. They like reading many books. They clarify doubts of other students on difficult topics. They get one of the top ranks in college examinations, and first prizes in arts, essay or music competitions. They are exemplary for the saying "slow and steady wins the race". They get along well with almost any person around. They are generous in friendship with a great energy for affection. They posses strong emotions and passions, and have the ability to control them. They are at peace with themselves, and are capable of forming great and stable relationships. They seek balance and harmony in the organization of their immediate environment. They are sometimes prone to argument, but do not resort to violence. They are slow to anger, generous to a fault, and not inclined to nurse grudges. Their face appears slightly less aged than what they are. Their smile contains the innocence and tranquility of a child. (Women of this type are called popular babes by their neighbours). They are not status seekers, position hunters or social climbers, and love others for their inner worth. Stability, enthusiasm and hope are always with them to surmount toughest times of stress and hardship. Their mind has a sharp acumen and clear thinking ability with which to judge time and circumstances. Any assignment given to them is completed satisfactorily, and a little more is done than what is expected of. For them, money is a key to convenience and comfort, and is never for hoarding. However, they tend towards laziness unless they are goaded by their family members, by friends, by circumstance, or by necessity. They usually have too many friends to please, and too many interests to please themselves. Hence, they may at times loose focus on the main task at hand. Many a times, they get overly occupied with themselves. They tend to become obstinate and do not like to move from a position once they have accepted it as their own. They transcend the limitations of time while playing tunes a musical instrument or listening to music. They scrupulously attend to their own affairs even amidst a troubled and disturbed atmosphere. They have a strong sense of form and beauty, and can become artists and poets. They are good at building things up from the beginning, laying the foundation for some thing new, initiating a new phase of manifestation, developing some new ideas, or innovating in non-conventional realms of knowledge. They like projects which they can finish single handedly to show their originality. Most of the time, others get benefitted by their work than vice-versa. They accept fate in some situations in which they are unable to do any thing. The percentage of persons interested in meditation or Yoga will be highest in this type. They are generous in giving and are usually predisposed to perform pious deeds and acts of charity. Even those who do not take to a particular spiritual discipline nonetheless try to follow some practical code of ethics in daily life. They hate to incur even small debts. They rarely force or beg others for any thing. They can make large sacrifices of time and energy, hating to fail or disappoint the ones who trust them. If the situation so demands, persons of this type can access the highest of knowledge in any field. Maslow's ladder model of self-actualization describes five levels of needs. It does not describe the self-defense need for survival of the body. The physiological needs such as hunger, thirst and sex are controlled by Chitta center. The belongingness needs for conscious identification, affection, affiliation, stability, order, job security, and to be a part of society are controlled by Manas center. The esteem needs for prestige, success and self-respect are controlled by Buddhi center. The self-actualization need for enjoyment, self-satisfaction, and realization of inner potentials is controlled by Jnaata center. 5. COMPARISON WITH COMPUTER HARDWARE AND ROBOTICS On the hardware side, the working of the components of mind can be compared with working of components in a computer . The Jnaana center (the head) can be compared to the hard disk. The spine consisting of Ahamkaara, Chitta, Manas and Buddhi centers works like the CPU (Central Processor Unit). The Aakasa center can be compared to the Hard Disk controller (and partly the DMA controller). It cooperates exchange of information between the hard disk and the CPU. This is how the brain-spine system works in a common man. In a general purpose personal computer, the CPU is usually 32-bit type. But a game computer requires a graphic card with 256-bit GPU (Graphic Processor Unit) to handle 3D graphics and Virtual Reality softwares. If a simple software like word processing is loaded on a game computer, it works like a common PC because simple softwares cannot use the 256-bit GPU. Even though the brain has the highest component of mind (like the 256-bit GPU) at the pineal gland, the common man will not be able to use it. In Artificial Intelligence, the 'describe and match' method for identifying an object consists of the following steps: (1) describe the object using a suitable representation (2) match the object description against library descriptions (3) if a satisfactory match is found, it is announced. These functions are performed by Chitta, Manas and Buddhi respectively. Image processing techniques used in Robotics involves the following stages: (1) center of area of the object using location methods, and it's placing relative to the known objects (2) finding features of the object like shape, geometry, radius etc (3) pattern recognition methods to find similarity or dissimilarity with stored images, (4) pattern discrimination system to overcome effects of improper lighting, shadows, disturbances in the environment etc. In the human body, these stages are carried out by Ahamkaara, Chitta, Manas and Buddhi centers respectively. 6. CYBERNETIC SYSTEMS OF THE BODY A living being requires adaptation to the changing conditions of external and internal environment. French physiologist Claude Bernard proposed the law of Homeostasis which states that constancy (or stability) of internal environment is a necessary condition for a living being. It uses it's internal autonomous regulation systems to accomplish this task. It may be noted here that the very logic of 'constancy' prohibits development with time required for a living being. In feedback control systems of Electrical Engineering, existence of a negative component is a must, and it is used as feedback to obtain automatic control of a system. Accordingly, development (or growth) should be called a 'disturbance' (or deviation) of constancy, and it is programmed in the genes of a living being for continuation of the species. The law of deviation of Homeostasis was developed in 1979 by Soviet physiologist V.M. Dilman [11]. If these two fundamental laws are of opposite nature, then the biological system requires a balancing mechanism. This mechanism is called Metastasis (metabolism or vital energy) which ensures harmony and optimal working of all processes in a living being. In Upanishad terminology, the working of Chitta and Buddhi are connected with sustenance principle of nature. The law of Homeostasis works predominantly in them. Aging of cells will be normal in persons of these two types. The working of Manas and Jnaata are connected with annihilation principle of nature. The law of deviation of Homeostasis works predominantly in them. Aging of cells will be abnormal in persons of these two types. It is like time running at an accelerated speed. It may be noted here that Kala is the name of death god; Kala also means 'time' in Sanskrit. The traits of such persons resemble those of a female and a male respectively who are going to face premature death due to some cancer like disease. The third possibility is that of time running at reduced speed in the cells of some persons. In Upanishad terminology, Jnaana center is connected with creative principle of nature. The vital energy of Metastasis works dominantly in Jnaana type persons. The fourth possibility is that of the three principles of birth, sustenance and death will be working in a mixed mode. This can be observed in Ahamkaara type persons. Modern psychology says that individuals can be classified according to four gender role orientations - androgynous, masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated. The feminine individuals belong to sustenance principle of nature. It is a known fact that females have a longer life span than males. The masculine individuals belong to annihilation principle of nature. The undifferentiated individuals belong to the mixed type. The mid-life crisis will be least felt by persons of this type. Androgynous individuals represent a state of well-being. They are more flexible, more mentally healthy than others, and have lower levels of stress. They represent the birth principle of nature. They can be called seekers of higher knowledge or higher consciousness. (Modern psychology knows that persons with regular reading habit for some knowledge are more capable of handling difficult situations, coping with stress, and have better cognitive skills. Persons with a habit of listening to soft music everyday also have similar capabilities.) Their sense of logic is multi-level, integrated and simultaneous, and transcends the limitations of well know linear, sequential and either-or type. Their identity is sharing-collective aimed at noble understanding and expression which deprecates all that is isolated-individual and suppression. They are rarely competitive or aggressive. They never crave for administrative power. They will be least interested in business or in amassing huge amounts of wealth. They know that their virtue is their best guard against any unexpected emergency or crisis. Racial, religious or political prejudice can claim no part of their interest or attention. They have the tendency to create, rather than destroy; help, rather than hinder; and give, rather than receive. They live with a definite sense of life-time mission, and aim at harmony and moderation. They feel that no cause is holy enough to justify annihilation. They emanate an aura of kindness, gentleness and goodness which appears somewhat out of the world or out of current-times. They think of meaning and direction in all their intellectual activities, and search for new ways understanding and of living. The highest aim of Yoga is to reach this state which some philosophers designate as Homo Noeticus. The mid-life crisis will be most severe for persons of this type. It will make many of them to realize that they have gone through many past lives. The Puranas say that people who lived in Krita Yuga were androgynous type who lived for 10000 years with harmony, elation and peace. 7. INFERENCES AND INTERPRETATIONS When people are asked to describe their emotions, they usually begin by telling about the arousing circumstances. They go on to describe some of their bodily reactions and their difficulties in dealing with the situation. But they do not define the emotion solely in terms of their own internal feelings. Fulfilling, exciting, bewildering, disappointing, exhausting - countless objectives like these are used to describe human sexual behaviour. Psychologists say that emotional life is infinitely varied, and it involves many bodily processes connected with an un- describable mental state. Philosophers say that there is more myth and mis- understanding surrounding sexuality than any other area of human behaviour. Further, there are social prohibitions against research and even against open discussion of sex. Few researchers have investigated the problem of why the private organ should be clothed or concealed in most of humans. Many such problems can be solved if we understand that the the private organ is connected with emotions and subconscious mind. The "collective unconscious" described by Carl Jung consists of three systems. In Yoga terminology of Patanjali, they are known as Adhi Atmika system (human collective psychic energy), Adhi Daivika (higher collective psychic energy) and Adhi Bhoutika (lower collective psychic energy). Bhoota also means ghost in Sanskrit. Manas, Jnaana and Chitta are the seats of these three systems respectively. A simplified way to understand these three systems is through the connection of Manas center with psychology, Chitta center with para-psychology, and Jnaana center with philosophy. It is known that adolescents are interested in occult stories. Psychic abilities like Psycho- Kinesis (PK), Poltergeist (involuntary PK) and premonition develop along with development of Chitta center during adolescence. Adhi Daivika system deals with influence of heavenly bodies like planets, stars, galaxies etc. Adhi Atmika system deals with mental influence of a person on others and vice versa. Adhi Bhoutika system deals with influence of Elements of nature, and living beings lower than humans. The predispositions to be afraid of the dark and of snakes are governed by lower collective psychic energy system. Stealing food is a crime for humans, but it is instinctive and natural for animals. Criminals like rapists and murderers are often accused of behaving like animals or demons; they are influenced by lower collective psychic energy system. Adolescence period is influenced by planets Mars and Venus which makes them sensitive to lower collective psychic energy. Adulthood period is influenced by planets Mercury and Jupiter which make them sensitive to human collective psychic energy. Old age period is influenced by planets Moon and Saturn which makes them sensitive to higher collective psychic energy. Classifying the mind of people into types can be found in the folk wisdom of most cultures. A few persons are called calm type, the majority are known to have some degree of nervousness, and the remaining are called unsettled type. Every person is influenced by the three collective psychic energies in varying degrees. In Sanskrit, Guna means physio-psychological factor. The Upanisads say that Satwa (order, symmetry, harmony, illumination, knowledge) represents lightness, is pleasing, and is capable of manifesting others. Rajas (activity, power) is dynamic, exciting, expansive, but also capable of hurting. Tamas (darkness, static, inertia, concealing) is characterized by heaviness, and causes obscurity and sadness. Persons who are mostly influenced by the lower collective psychic energy are called Tamo Guna (activities of darkness) type persons. They belong to the unsettled type according to folk wisdom. The 'lazy drifters' and the 'emotionally unbalanced', in whom Chitta and Jnaata centers work dominantly, belong to this type. Persons who are mostly influenced by the human collective psychic energy are called Rajo Guna (human level activities) type persons. They belong to the nervous type according to folk wisdom. The 'managers' and the 'trailblazers', in whom Manas and Buddhi centers work dominantly, belong to this type. Persons who are mostly influenced by the higher collective psychic energy are called Satwa Guna (relaxed alertness, peaceful activities) type persons. They belong to the calm type according to folk wisdom. Yogis, philosophers and peace makers, in whom Jnana center works dominantly, belong to this type. The persons in whom the Ahamkaara center works dominantly and other centers work below the average level are called Misra (mixed) Guna type persons. The 'diligent workers' belong to this type. The Tri-Kaya doctrine of Yogacara in Buddhism describes about the apparitional body which deals with the mere fictions of imagination, the enjoyment body which deals with thoughts connected with relative existence under certain conditions, and the dharma body which deals with the perfect mode of being corresponding to right knowledge. The word Kaya (body) is used in this text to designate the centers in the body. The apparitional body, enjoyment body and dharma body correspond to components of mind connected with Tamo Guna, Rajo Guna and Satwa Guna respectively. Arndt-Schultz Law states that small stimuli encourage life activity, medium stimuli impede life activity, and strong stimuli destroy life activity. Modern psychology knows that a mild level of emotional arousal tends to produce alertness and interest in the task at hand, and intense level of arousal requires the central nervous system to respond to too many things at once and causes emotional disturbance or disorganization. Satwa guna persons spend a happy and contended life with small stimuli, Rajo guna persons are not happy with small stimuli and try to have medium stimuli which bring a period of upset and stress in their wake. Such persons accept them in the light of greater understanding and compassion that accompanies the medium stimuli. They have the necessity to cope with an environment requiring continual behaviour adjustment or refinement. Tamo guna persons crave for strong stimuli not bothering about it's consequences, and live a lifespan which is a little shorter than others. Observations of people during crises, such as fires or sudden floods, suggest that about 15 percent show organized and effective behaviour. They belong to the Satwa guna type. The majority, which makes up for about 70 percent, show various degrees of disorganization but are still able to function with reasonable effectiveness. They attend to a wide range of rescue and relief works. They belong to the Rajo guna type. The remaining 15 percent are so disorganized that they are unable to function properly. They may race around screaming, or exhibit aimless and completely inappropriate behaviour. They belong to the Tamo guna. The search for core personality traits that characterize people has a long history in recent times. Even though the method of formulating these traits is somewhat different from that used in the ancient Indian scriptures, some approximate equivalence may be given. One system of personality traits classify people as Openness, Introversion, Extroversion, Conscientiousness, Irritability and Emotional Stability types. Ahamkaara type persons belong to Openness trait, Chitta type belong to Introversion trait, Manas type belong to Extroversion trait, Buddhi type belong to Conscientiousness trait, Jnaata type belong to Irritability trait, and Jnaana type belong to Emotional Stability trait. The Holland's personality types model classifies people as Conventional (confirming, efficient, inhibited, unimaginative), Artistic (expressive, introspective, imaginative, original), Enterprising (energetic, domineering, talkative, ambitious, status minded), Investigative (intellectual, analytical, curious, scientific), Realistic (mechanical, materialistic, asocial, engineering attitude) and Social (cooperative, helpful, understanding, teaching). The Ahamkaara, Chitta, Manas, Buddhi, Jnaata and Jnaana type persons belong to these personality types respectively. If Ahamkaara center (which does the first analysis of information) is like the police who write the F.I.R. (First Information Report) and bring a criminal to the court, Chitta center works like the defense lawyer and the Manas center works like the public prosecutor. The Buddhi center works like the judge. After hearing the arguments of the Chitta center and the Manas center, Buddhi center goes through the past case records available at the Jnana center. Then it gives it's judgment. The Jnaata center acts like the jail officer who executes the sentence. Chitta center tries to search for something useful in what is termed as bad or inferior by people in general. It is qualitative and independent in nature. The Manas center tries to integrate all the pieces of information sent by the Chitta center into something practical under the given circumstances. It is quantitative and dependent in nature. Intelligence implies ability to solve a problem using pre-established norms and conventional solutions; this is done by Manas center. Creativity implies a new and probably a nonconformist end product; this is done by Chitta center. At times, spontaneous and creative ideas of Chitta may appear like hallucinations of a schizophrenic or a rebel. Chitta is connected with separation, dissociation, diversification and incomprehensible. Manas is connected with combination, association, unification and comprehensible. If a great poem is written using impulses from Chitta, it is repeatedly revised using the laborious instructions from Manas before it can be accepted by Buddhi center and becomes a masterpiece. In the olden days in Andhra Pradesh, a father used to say to his son "Naa Manas poortigaa cheppaanu. Vinakapote nee Chittam" (I told from the depths of my Manas. If you do not like it, you do according to your desires). Baalyam in Sanskrit and Telugu is the age upto 10 years. "Paatikella paduchoedu" in Telugu means an adult male of 25 years age. It also means that a person of 25 years age and above is treated as an adult. The intervening period between 10 and 25 years age is called Koumaaram in Sanskrit which roughly corresponds with adolescence period. During this period, Chitta dominates the thinking process. (Kumaara is one of the names in Sanskrit for planet Mars). Modern medicine knows that the heart-beat in a child is faster than that of an adult. The pulse rate in a new born baby is about 140 beats per minute. This pulse rate gradually reduces during the Koumaaram period and settles down to it's stable value of 76 beats per minute after the age of 24 years. Since the heart is located in the Manas region, Manas of a person said to function efficiently after 24 years of age. Modern psychology knows that adolescents behave with playful and 'what if' attitude, and adults find the need to fit their reasoning into the dimensions of real life. Modern medicine knows that muscular strength peaks between the ages of 25 and 30. Modern psychologists treat the period from 35 to 40 years as mid-life crisis period. Most of the people may not feel much during this period. However for those few persons who experience it's full intensity, it will be like a mini-death. Some psychologists use the terminology 'fluid intelligence' (flexible thoughts that are not much dependent on culturally based content) which declines over the period from young adult-hood to old age, and 'crystallized intelligence' (mastering the knowledge of culture) which increased well into old age. Flourit in English means flowering of wisdom; it also means the age of 40. Buddhi center starts functioning efficiently after the age of 40. History knows that major inventions or innovations in science were made by people after the age of 24, and major achievement in philosophy, history or literature after the age of 40. Some Puranas wrote there divinity in what children say ("Bala vak Brahma vak"). The adolescent period of sexual interest is like the night dominated by lower collective psychic energy system. The youth period of emotional balance is like the dawn and early morning dominated by human collective psychic energy system. Old age period of interest in higher knowledge is day-time-like period dominated by higher collective psychic energy system. The age at which a person gets under this influence differs from one person to another. Some Puranas wrote that Lord Brahma is aged 50 years. One interpretation of this line is that some persons enter the period dominated by higher collective psychic energy system at the age of 50 and others any time after that or just before death. Modern researchers have also found that personality becomes more stable after 50 years of age [12]. A simple and safe experiment can be done on the spine. By scratching the skin on these centers with a finger nail, it can be sensed that touch sensitivity is lowest at the Ahamkaara center, and that the touch sensitivity gradually increases in the order Ahamkaara, Chitta, Manas, Buddhi, and Jnaata. A few sensitive persons may experience some thoughts connected with these centers during the scratching. The preferred time for doing this experiment would be at 3.30 a.m. when most of the people around are asleep and the influence of the human collective psychic energy will be at it's lowest. Use of a writing pencil for the experiment gives better results for some persons. The creative artists like poets and music composers can use the time from 10:30 p.m. to 11:30 p.m. (the time of sexual thoughts) for creating good works of art using Chitta. Since Chitta center is connected with water, taking bath during this time will also enhance emotions. Morning time of Friday can also be used for this purpose. During Asura Sandya (Devilish Evening) time (3:30 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.), Chitta center experiences subconscious inertness and Manas center will be working dominantly and somewhat painfully. For creative artists, this is a good time for using their faculty of reason to revise their works. Morning time of Wednesday can also be used for such a purpose. 8. EPILOGUE The Sanskrit language has more than 20 words to designate the various aspects of mind. Most of the ancient Indian manuscripts written exclusively on the scientific aspects of mind are now lost. What we can gather now on this topic are fragments from other texts. Any symbolism that has evolved from man's desire to understand himself and his function within the universe must invariably reflect the laws of nature. Henri Bergson defined intuition as instinct that is capable of reflecting upon its object and of enlarging it indefinitely. Only by intuition, he declared, can the absolute be comprehended. The Upanisads say that every thing in creation is unique. No person has the knowledge to understand every aspect of even a small living being in nature. Chitta describes what is real. Manas prepares a rational model of what it is. The present paper is an example of such a rational model. Nature functions through common laws whose dialectical essence is not always obviously understood. As there is a universe outside the human body (macrocosm), there is a universe inside the body (microcosm). Hence, there is scope for many scientists to work on different aspects of this topic. 9. ACKNOWLEDMENTS The authors wish to thank Dr. K.V.S.V.N. Raju, Professor in Computer Science & Systems Engineering Department, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, for his creative criticism. The authors are grateful to Prof. P.S. Ramiah, Professor in Computer Science & Systems Engineering Department, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, for providing some material used in this work. 10. REFERENCES [1] The Hutchinson Encyclopedia, The topic on "mind", Computer CD Version, 2002. [2] Donald Watson, A Dictionary of Mind and Spirit, Andre Deutsch Ltd., London, 1991. [3] P. Sesha Chalam, Parama Pada Margamu, N.V.Gopal & co., Madras, 1982, p. 21. [4] Mallaadi Venkata Daasu, Sri Rama Guru Boedhaamruta Sara, N.V.Gopal & co., Madras, 1981, p. 26. [5] Swami Harshananda, A Dictionary of Advaita Vedanta, Ramakrishna Math, Bangalore, 2000, p. 32. [6] Swami Nikhilananda, Vedanta Sara of Sadananda, Advaita Ashrama, Kolkota, 2002, p. 46. [7] The Diagram Group, The Brain: A User's Manual, Berkley Books, New York, 1983, p. 215. [8] Eckhart Tolle, The Power of Now, Yogi Impressions, Mumbai, 2004, p. 20. [9] Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence, Bloomsbury Publishers, London, 1996, p. 8-9. [10] Louise Samways, Your Mindbody Energy, B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2000, p. 60. [11] V.M. Dilman, The Grand Biological Clock, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1989, p. 69 - 71. [12] B.W. Roberts, W.F. DelVecchio, The rank-order consistency of personality from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 126, p. 3-25, 2000.


    Larry Arnold
    I think that every age is constrained in the analogies it uses by contingency.

    In the early modern age, clockwork would be advanced as an analogy as the ne plus ultra, however with the telegraph, telephone and primitive electronics, the telephone exchange became available as an analogy, and nowadays it is the computer. What it will be next, we cannot know, but I reasonably sure we have not come to the end of all possible analogies for mind and brain, and perhaps eventually our understanding will advance to the point that we do not need analogies anymore as there will be a convergence between organic and mechanistic.

    As to why a clock, a telephone exchange, a computer, are available for analogy, comes not from the nature of the artefact itself but from the nature of the intelligence that created that artefact. Thhat is to say we make things systematically, they have components, and they have dynamics. We cannot help but reason the way we do by reference to them as they are in effect an extension of ourselves. (Which I confess is getting a bit McCluhanesque, but worth re-iterating all the same)
    The analogy is not the main theme of this article.

    "Our two minds .... One is an act of the emotional
    mind, the other of the rational mind. In a very
    real sense we have two minds, one that thinks and
    one that feels" (Daniel Goleman, Emotional
    Intelligence, Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 1996,
    page 8). The rational mind is also called the
    faculty of logic and reason.

    The Upanishads say that these two are opposite in
    nature. Emotions appear irrational. Rationality
    seems to lack emotions. Modern psychologist also
    have observed it, but they are not very sure about

    "At the same time, reason sometimes clearly seems
    to come into conflict with some desires (even
    while not being in conflict with others) giving us
    the impression that reason is separate from


    Emotion has usually, in the European- American tradition,
    been seen as the opposite of reason.

    Emotion is generally regarded by Western civilization as the
    antithesis of reason. This distinction stems from Western
    philosophy, specifically Cartesian dualism and modern
    interpretations of Stoicism, and is reflected in common
    phrases like appeal to emotion or your emotions have taken


    Modern science says that the right brain deals with emotions, feelings, creativity, and intuition.  However, the Hindu Upanishads say that there are more than two components
    of mind, and that they are located on the spine. That is the theme of this article.

    In the study of army veterans with spinal-cord injuries, researchers found that they can become emotional but they do not feel it - they do not have the bodily heat that they
    used to have before the injuries.

    I will be very thankful if you discuss on these points.
    I have to agree with you that the western 2 mind, emotional/rational mind model is seriously flawed, thought it has been the staple diet for too long, in my opinion
    I ventured into exploring the eastern traditions because of an awareness of 'a something' way beyond the almost miniscule mindset created by the 2 mind system

    As a left-hander, the model didn't fit me, in any event....

    However I do find the western way of being succinct has advantages, as some teachings such as the Upanishads, like this article are so wordy as to more than hint at rational mind at work, whereas the topic and the country are reknowned for their spirituality beyond the rational

    'I felt I was going on an epic journey to arrive where I began', said the lost soul

    In the early modern age, clockwork would be advanced as an analogy
    Or in Ancient Greece?
    As to why a clock, a telephone exchange, a computer, are available for analogy, comes not from the nature of the artefact itself but from the nature of the intelligence that created that artefact. Thhat is to say we make things systematically, they have components, and they have dynamics. We cannot help but reason the way we do by reference to them as they are in effect an extension of ourselves
    Which is why I argue that the notion 'time' is an artifact of human perception, Laurence.   :)
    Please read my reply.

    Siva: the human brain is much more complex than the dual hemisphere model suggests.  Too many books on cognitive science focus on the cerebrum. That is like focusing on a game of cards instead of the underlying operating system in a computer.

    Yes, there are computing functions, as I would call them, in the spine, and yes, the spine carries somatic signals.  It follows that interference with the spinal cord could generate signals of bodily discomfort.  And yes, that could affect the emotions, but it is the brain that detects the condition, that makes a higher brain function aware, so that the higher function, the 'I' or the ego can claim to 'feel' discomfort.  The higher function seems to reside in the cerebellum, but this 'captain' has a whole crew to which computing tasks may be delegated.

    The Upanishads give us some very insightful ideas about the mind, and sanskrit grammar about how language works, but I do not think they have much to offer about the brain's physical function as intercommunicating clusters of neurons of various types.
    Sorry folks, I unpublished this yesterday because the title doesn't read like anything that belongs on the science site and I couldn't see any text (and still can't, even though I can't find any offending HTML)  but people commented on it so everyone else must see it.

    So ... enjoy?   

    The human energetic system has seven chakras (on spine). Each chakra
    affects specific organs and mental states-generally a chakra affects
    the area of the body in which it is located.

    Muladhara, the 1st Chakra:
    The mental issues associated with the first chakra concern survival,
    life and death, good and bad, fear and security.

    Svadhisthana, the 2nd Chakra:
    The issues involved include the integration of sexual identity and
    functioning with sensuality, self-image, pleasure and procreation.

    Manipura, the 3rd Chakra:
    Intelligence, alertness and sharpness are fruits of this chakra.
    Issues that press for resolution are: passive vs. aggressive;
    domination vs. submission; top dog vs. underdog; competition,

    Anahata, the 4th Chakra:
    The issues of giving love and nurturance, and reaching out to others,
    make this the focus of compassionate relatedness.

    Vishuddha, the 5th chakra:
    Issues include receptivity, surrender, the ability to take in
    nurturance and love, the capacity for devotion, faith, creativity and


    An explanation of the chakras, and their role in understanding the
    interactions between the body and the consciousness within.



    I was reading this article. With proper respect, I just wanted to say that there is very serious misunderstanding of several terms and concepts on the part of the author. Secion 2. COMPONENTS OF MIND tries to discuss the Hindu idea of mind and its components. But I am very shocked to see that most of it is not at all accurate. It will be a complete misunderstanding of Hindu idea. There are too many specifics for me to point out here. I earnestly request the author/authority to withdraw this article, and consider thorough reviewing.