Who hasn't tried to bleach their hair with hydrogen peroxide in college? I can't tell you how many young scientists we know who tried to go for that young Reed Richards look.
It turns out that hydrogen peroxide may be responsbile for bleached hair in aging also, though not intentionally.
Researchers of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany nd the University of Bradford say they have now unlocked the secret of hair turning white or gray in old age. According to them, free oxygen radicals are significantly involved in the loss of hair color.
Reed Richards, Mister Fantastic. He had that same hair in college. And smoked a pipe! ©Marvel Comics Group.
“The originator of the entire process is hydrogen peroxide, which we also know as a bleaching agent,” explains Professor Heinz Decker of the Institute of Biophysics at Mainz University. “With advancing age, hydrogen peroxide builds up in larger amounts in the hair follicle and ultimately inhibits the synthesis of the color pigment melanin.”
The biophysicists in Mainz together with dermatologists from Bradford say they have revealed the molecular mechanisms of this process for the first time.
Hydrogen peroxide - or H2O2 by its the chemical formula – is a by-product of metabolism, and as such it is generated in small amounts throughout the human body, consequently also in hair follicles. With increasing age, the quantity builds up, because the human body can no longer keep up neutralizing the hydrogen peroxide using the enzyme catalyse, which breaks down hydrogen peroxide into its two components water and oxygen.
In their work, the scientists showed that in aging cells this enzyme is still present but in very limited concentration.
This has dramatic consequences. Hydrogen peroxide attacks the enzyme tyrosinase by oxidizing an amino acid, methionine, at the active site. As a consequence, this key enzyme, which normally starts the synthesizing pathway of the coloring pigment melanin, does not function anymore.
“We now know the specific molecular dynamic that underlies this process,” says Decker. The scientists at the Institute of Biophysics at Mainz University have been working for about ten years already on research concerning tyrosinases, which are enzymes present in all organisms and performing a variety of functions. In computer simulations that helped to reveal the molecular mechanisms, the biophysicists were supported by the newly established research focus on 'Computer-based Research Methods in the Natural Sciences' at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz.
Oxidation by hydrogen peroxide not only interferes with the production of melanin, but also inhibits other enzymes that are needed for the repair of damaged proteins. As a result, a cascade of events is set off, at the end of which stands the gradual loss of pigments in the entire hair from its root to its tip. With this research work, the scientists from Mainz and Bradford not only solved – on a molecular level – the age-old riddle of why hair turns gray in old age, but also have pointed out approaches for future therapy of vitiligo, a skin pigment disorder. For melanin is not only the pigment in hair, but it is also responsible for color in skin and eyes.
The researchers in Mainz were supported by the Collaborative Research Center 490 “Mechanisms of Invasion and Persistence of Infectious Agents”, and the Research Training Group 1043 “Antigen-specific Immunotherapy”, both funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
J. M. Wood, H. Decker, H. Hartmann, B. Chavan, H. Rokos, J. D. Spencer, S. Hasse, M. J. Thornton, M. Shalbaf, R. Paus, and K. U. Schallreuter, 'Senile hair graying: H2O2-mediated oxidative stress affects human hair color by blunting methionine sulfoxide repair', The FASEB Journal, online published on 23 February 2009, doi: 10.1096/fj.08-125435
T. Schweikardt, C. Olivares, F. Solano, E. Jaenicke, J.C. Garcia-Borron and H. Decker, 'A three-dimensional model of mammalian tyrosinase active site accounting for loss of function mutations', Pigment Cell Research (2007) 20:394-401
H. Decker, T. Schweikardt and F. Tuczek, 'The first crystal structure of tyrosinase: all questions answered?', Angewandte Chemie International Edition Engl., (2006) 45, 4546 - 4550
- PHYSICAL SCIENCES
- EARTH SCIENCES
- LIFE SCIENCES
- SOCIAL SCIENCES
Subscribe to the newsletter
Stay in touch with the scientific world!
Know Science And Want To Write?
- Science Left Behind: The Anti-Vaccine Update Update
- Moderate Pot Use By Adolescents Doesn't Hurt IQ
- What Americans Fear Most Isn't Ebola Or Terrorism, It's...
- Finding Fracking Fluids In The Environment
- Ashes And Vegetables: The Diet Of Roman Gladiators Was Rather Poor
- Manly Men And Feminine Women Are Not Evolutionary Mandates - They Are Urban Ones
- Dopamine Receptor Agonist Drugs Linked To Gambling And Hypersexuality
- "why are you in all the arguments? Teach me how to get into more arguments. Also, teach me wft to..."
- "So if spirituality is selected for, that has nothing to do with evolution. If that is the case..."
- "said the unscientifically backed atheist to the other atheist..."
- "Obviously, rather than embracing the fact that humans are irrational and admiring the results,..."
- "I find this debate between two relatively learned people humorous. Atenism, whatever it is, died..."
- An end to fat shaming? The 50 year DNA mystery of metabolic dysfunction may soon be solved
- Egg freezing: a smart career move?
- Despite resistance, China will dominate future of GMOs
- Should Science and Nature run advertorial by wacky Dr. Bronner’s that misleads on GMOs?
- Jack the Ripper’s identity remains a mystery after error in DNA analysis revealed
- Seed patent primer: Is the use of GMOs preventing farmers from reusing their seeds?
- Teenage self-harm linked to problems in later life
- Unsteady on your feet? Little touches could make all the difference
- Promising blood biomarkers identified for colorectal cancer: Is a screening blood test within reach?
- Studies must be carried out to determine whether exercise slows the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adults
- Clot dissolver tPA's tardy twin could aid in stroke recovery