Researchers have developed what they are billing as the world’s lightest material. With a density of 0.9 mg/cc, it is about one hundred times lighter than Styrofoam™.
The new material redefines the limits of lightweight materials because of its unique “micro-lattice” cellular architecture, they say - consists of 99.99 percent air by designing the 0.01 percent solid at the nanometer, micron and millimeter scales. The material’s architecture allows unprecedented mechanical behavior for a metal, including complete recovery from compression exceeding 50 percent strain and extraordinarily high energy absorption.
Loudspeakers have improved a lot in the last 50 years but one pesky issue has remained; dead spots.
Modern oudspeakers can be designed to deliver the full frequency range of audible sound but it is difficult to achieve a smooth frequency output in all directions. Dead spots are caused by deconstructive interference as a result of radiating sound waves overlapping and cancellng each other out. This often happens when the sound is radiating from two or more sources, like in the mid-frequency ranges where both the 'woofer' and 'tweeter' loudspeaker cones are both active. This creates areas where the frequency response of the loudspeaker is less smooth, and sound quality is diminished.
Electrocrystallization, electric-field-induced phase transformation, predicts that under the influence of sufficiently high electric fields, liquid droplets of certain materials will undergo solidification, forming crystallites at temperature and pressure conditions that correspond to liquid droplets at field-free conditions. A study in the Journal of Physical Chemistry C says they have done it.
The researchers set out first to explore a phenomenon described by Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor in 1964 in the course of his study of the effect of lightning on raindrops, expressed as changes in the shape of liquid drops when passing through an electric field.
Efforts have long been underway to make the Système Internationale d'unités (SI Units) more accurate. If you know your science history, SI units were devised during the French Revolution as an alternative to the British System. And so the French Academy of Sciences was tasked with the new system and promptly got the whole thing wrong.
But SI units caught on and so efforts have been ongoing to make them more accurate. Scientists like the idea to relate all of the unit definitions to fundamental constants of nature, making them stable and universal and giving them closer links to each other and the quantities they measure.
We like to think some things are constant, like temperature, and they are as long as everyone agrees. That does not mean they are accurate. The metric system is a famous example of a flawed measurement that nonetheless became popular.
Temperature is based on a chemico-physical material property, not on an unchangeable fundamental constant. Some physicists would like to change that. They call themselves metrologists - measurement artists who want to be as precise and change the field of worldwide temperature measurement.
The ring-shaped stains of tiny dissolved particles, like a coffee stains from the bottom of a cup, that develop after a liquid has evaporated hold a physics mystery - while the particles on the outside of the ring are neatly organized, chaos reigns on the inside of the ring where the particles seem to have collected in a great hurry.
In microfluidic devices, small separated droplets flow in a stream of carrier liquid. Occasionally, selected droplets have to be merged to carry out a chemical reaction, which can be greatly facilitated with the use of electric field through a process of electrocoalescence.
Researchers from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences have recently found what governs the process and how to maximize the efficiency of merging.
Micro-manufacturing even the "Sons of Anarchy could love - a new type of ultra-thin, self-adhesive electronic 'tattoo' that can effectively measure data about the human heart, brain waves and muscle activity. No bulky equipment, conductive fluids or glues needed.
The researchers have created what looks like a cool tattoo, but in reality it is an epidermal electronic system (EES). They have incorporated miniature sensors, light-emitting diodes, tiny transmitters and receivers and networks of carefully crafted wire filaments into their initial designs.
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The most prestigious journal in the field of microscopy published an article by us this year and the work also already spawned a book chapter. Apart from the work not being critical of anything and having many cute pictures, the reason for it making it into a respectable journal may be partially due to it actually being interesting: