*Abstract*

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.

# Dark quanta

Two and a
half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that
are not waves but shock fronts. The discoverers did not notice that these
objects are quantized, but they discovered that the shock fronts only existed
in odd numbers of participating dimensions. It is time to rediscover these
objects and for that reason I have given them names. This makes it easier to
discuss these objects. I use ** warp**
as name for one-dimensional shock fronts and

**as name for three-dimensional spherical shock fronts. Shock fronts do not exist apropos of nothing. Shock fronts need to be triggered by a corresponding trigger.**

*clamp*Warps** **are
one-dimensional shock fronts. During travel, they keep their shape and their
amplitude. Until they are caught, they do
not alter. Each warp carries a standard bit of energy. In physical reality, warps occur as separate objects, or they appear equidistant combined in
strings where they emulate the behavior of photons. Photons obey the
Einstein-Planck relation. This relation
means that all photons share the same spatial length. The emitter must arrange
the periodic trigger.

Clamps are three-dimensional spherical shock fronts. The front keeps its shape, but during travel, it diminishes its amplitude as 1/r with distance r from the trigger location. The clamp quickly fades away, but in the meantime, the front integrates into the Green’s function of the carrier field. Therefore, the clamp temporarily deforms its carrier. Each clamp carries a standard bit of mass.

As separate objects, warps and clamps cannot be observed. They represent dark quanta. Only combined in huge, continuously regenerated, dense, and coherent swarms the clamps can cause a significant persistent deformation of their carrier. Also, large clouds of dark quanta can generate an observable macroscopic influence.

# Particles

Stochastic
mechanisms exist that apply stochastic processes, which own a characteristic
function, can generate the recurrently regenerated dense and coherent swarm of
hop landing locations of a point-like object. That object is an ** elementary
particle** and hops around in a stochastic hopping path. The stochastic
processes play a crucial role. The characteristic function acts as a
displacement generator. Therefore, at first approximation,
the swarm moves coherently as a single object.

Clamps do what the Higgs is supposed to do. They give elementary particles their mass. However. separate clamps will never become observable in measuring instruments, such as the LHC.

Elementary
particles are elementary modules. Together, they constitute all other ** modules**
and the modules can form modular systems. Also, the modules move coherently as
a single object. This fact indicates that
a stochastic process, whose characteristic function acts as a displacement
generator also generates their footprint. This
effect is possible if the characteristic function of the module equals the
superposition of the characteristic functions of its components. The
superposition coefficients determine the internal locations of the components.
These locations may oscillate. This indicates that the characteristic function
arranges the binding of the components.

The
characteristic function equals the Fourier transform of the location density
distribution of the generated hop landing location swarm. The deformation of
the carrier equals the convolution of the Green’s function of the carrier and
the location density distribution of the swarm. With other words, the deformation describes the ** gravitation
potential** of the module. This shows that a simple relation exists
between quantum physics and gravitation.

The
location density distribution of the swarm equals the squared modulus of the ** wavefunction**
of the module.

# Photons

The usual interpretation of photons as electromagnetic waves must be false. After long range trips that last millions of light years, warps will still preserve their amplitude and energy. Without waveguides, waves will diverge and lose most of their amplitude. Small detectors can then still detect strings of warps, but small sensors cannot detect what is left from waves. The carrier of warps is our living space, which is always and everywhere present. Electric fields do not feature such huge ranges. They require the nearby existence of electric charges.

*References*

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_equation#General_solution

[2] https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Hilbert_Book_Model_Project

The stochastic hopping path of elementary particles can be related to the Lagrangian, which is the base of the standard model. See: https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Hilbert_Book_Model_Project/Multi-mix_Path_Algorithm.

Early in the twentieth century, physics discovered the wavefunction and based most of its subsequent theories on this obscure concept. The warps and clamps invite to investigate deeper and analyze the swarms of which the location density distribution relates to the wavefunction.