# Mathematics

As you know, when heat in soup is increased, it will eventually boil.

When time and space are heated, an expanding universe can emerge, without requiring anything like a "Big Bang", according to a new math paper.

The math behind this phase transition between a boring empty space and an expanding universe containing mass is a connection between quantum field theory and Einstein's theory of relativity. Everybody knows of the transitions between liquid, solid and gaseous phases. But also time and space can undergo a phase transition, as the physicists Steven Hawking and Don Page pointed out in 1983. They calculated that empty space can turn into a black hole at a specific temperature.

Quantum entanglement, the phenomenon of quantum mechanics that Albert Einstein once referred to as "spooky action at a distance," could be even spookier - hypothetically.

Quantum entanglement occurs when a pair or a group of particles interact in ways that dictate that each particle's behavior is relative to the behavior of the others. In a pair of entangled particles, if one particle is observed to have a specific spin, for example, the other particle observed at the same time will have the opposite spin.

The famous Von Neumann-Day math problem, first described by mathematician John von Neumann in 1929, has gotten a geometric solution, according to Cornell University researchers. Graduate student Yash Lodha, working with Justin Moore, professor of mathematics, has described a geometric solution for the von Neumann-Day problem, first described by mathematician John von Neumann in 1929.

The World Series begins in a few hours and while they have to play the games, math can project winners and losers - and the math says the Boston Red Sox have a 70% chance of winning it all.

Unlike a Presidential contest, which is one day and one winner but for which voters can be polled in advance, baseball incorporates a lot of variables and there are up to 7 games. And things happen during each game. There are only so many data points that can be factored in as parameters and using those parameters, statistical methods like Bayes and Markov can help you look smart at the sports bar.

How did he do this time?

The Pirates didn't advance, the Cardinals are now facing the Dodgers, but otherwise he nailed it, with the Boston Red Sox and the Detroit Tigers getting ready to square off for the pennant. The math doesn't always work; last year his numbers said Detroit would win the World Series. Nope, Giants again, my gut beat reason and sanity.

A new paper uses mathematical models

to examine the effect of direct and indirect social influences, otherwise known as peer pressure, on how decisions are reached on important issues. The data taken from 15 networks, including groups as disparate as U.S. school superintendents and Brazilian farmers, outline peer pressure's crucial role in society.

As an Applied Mathematician, I like to use mathematical modeling and computational techniques to try to better understand how things work in the world around me. One application I have studied over a number of years is how to compute the number of runs (and their distribution) for a team of baseball players with realistic data.

Tracking a fish is not as easy as you might think. The radio signals that are the backbone of traditional GPS cannot pass through seawater.

But sound travels remarkably well and scientists often use acoustic telemetry to estimate an individual fish’s location. That means attaching an acoustic transmitter to a fish and then using a network of stationary underwater listening stations to monitor for the short clicking sounds that these tags emit. When a fish swims near to a receiver, its click is heard, and its individual code number is recorded.

It's best not to think too much about this before your next flight but, even while on the ground,aircraft landing gear can have shimmy oscillations during taxiing, takeoff, and landing.

Kevin Hays, 19, of Renton, Washington, is studying math, in Arts & Sciences, and computer science at Washington University in St. Louis - and now he has a new world record in the Rubik's Cube, taking the top spot from ... himself.

Hays solved the “6x6” Rubik’s Cube in 1 minute, 40 seconds, 9 seconds faster than his previous record. The 6 x 6 cube has 36 squares per side; that’s a total of 216 squares Hays twisted and turned into perfect alignment.

For comparison, most of us grew up trying (and failing) to solve it did so with a standard 3 x 3 cube, which has nine squares per side.