A decades old space mystery has been solved by an international team of astronomers who investigated hot, young, white dwarfs — the super-dense remains of Sun-like stars that ran out of fuel and collapsed to about the size of the Earth.
It has been known that many hot white dwarfs atmospheres, essentially of pure hydrogen or pure helium, are contaminated by other elements – like carbon, silicon and iron. What was not known, however, was the origins of these elements, known in astronomical terms as metals.
"The precise origin of the metals has remained a mystery and extreme differences in their abundance between stars could not be explained," said Professor Martin Barstow of the University of Leicester and President-elect of the Royal Astronomical Society. "It was believed that this material was "levitated" by the intense radiation from deeper layers in the star."
Now they have discovered that many of the stars show signs of contamination by rocky material, the left overs from a planetary system.
The researchers surveyed 89 white dwarfs, using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to obtain their spectra (dispersing the light by color) in which the "fingerprints" of carbon, silicon, phosphorous and sulfur can be seen, when these elements are present in the atmosphere.
"We found that in stars with polluted atmospheres the ratio of silicon to carbon matched that seen in rocky material, much higher than found in stars or interstellar gas.
"The new work indicates that at around a one-third of all hot white dwarfs are contaminated in this way, with the debris most likely in the form of rocky minor planet analogues. This implies that a similar proportion of stars like our Sun, as well as stars that are a little more massive like Vega and Fomalhaut, build systems containing terrestrial planets. This work is a form of celestial archaeology where we are studying the 'ruins' of rocky planets and/or their building blocks, following the demise of the main star.