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    Shorter Men Live Longer
    By News Staff | May 9th 2014 03:18 PM | 1 comment | Print | E-mail | Track Comments

    In Japanese men, shorter height and longer life seem to be linked, according to an analysis of data in the Kuakini Honolulu Heart Program (HHP) and the Kuakini Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS).


    Shorter men were more likely to have a protective form of the longevity gene, FOXO3, leading to smaller body size during early development and a longer lifespan. Shorter men were also more likely to have lower blood insulin levels and less cancer.

    The Kuakini HHP started in 1965 with 8,006 American men of Japanese ancestry born between the years 1900 and 1919. The lifestyles and health conditions of these men were closely followed and studied by the researchers through the years. The Kuakini HHP is the only longitudinal study of Japanese-American men that has included epidemiological and clinical data of the cohorts for almost 50 years.

    From a worldwide perspective, it is the only research program that maintains a comprehensive, longitudinal database of demographic, lifestyle and medical information, as well as biological specimens collected, from such a large cohort of aging men.



    Dr. Bradley Willcox, a Professor in the University of Hawaii
    Department of Geriatric Medicine. Credit: Kuakini Health System

    "We split people into two groups – those that were 5-foot-2 and shorter, and 5-4 and taller," said Dr. Bradley Willcox, one of the investigators for the study and a Professor in the University of Hawai`i (UH) John A. Burns School of Medicine's Department of Geriatric Medicine. "The folks that were 5-2 and shorter lived the longest. The range was seen all the way across from being 5-foot tall to 6-foot tall. The taller you got, the shorter you lived."

    "This study shows for the first time, that body size is linked to this gene," said Willcox. "We knew that in animal models of aging. We did not know that in humans. We have the same or a slightly different version in mice, roundworms, flies, even yeast has a version of this gene, and it's important in longevity across all these species."

    They didn't have a specific height or age range that should be targeted as a cut-off in the study, in part because "no matter how tall you are, you can still live a healthy lifestyle" to offset having a typical FOXO3 genotype rather than the longevity-enhancing form of the FOXO3 gene.

    "One of the reasons why Honolulu is perfect for this kind of study is that we have the longest-lived state in the country, combined with a population that has remained, for the most part, in Hawaii. This has helped us maintain one of the longest-running, largest studies of aging men in the world, in the Kuakini Honolulu Heart Program," Dr. Willcox said.

    Approximately 1,200 men from the study lived into their 90s and 100s, and approximately 250 of those men are still alive today.



    Comments

    I have studied longevity and height for about 40 years and I have published in about 40 medical, nutritional, and scientific journals and books. My work has found a longevity advantage for shorter people. A number of biological mechanisms are at work to promote longevity for smaller people. These include:

    1. Fewer cell replications allow a reserve of cells for use during old age.
    2. Insulin and other growth factors are lower and low levels are related to greater longevity.
    3. Smaller left ventricular mass of the heart is related to reduced heart failure and all-cause mortality.
    4. Lower levels of C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and glucose reduce mortality.
    5. Lower blood pressure.
    6. Lower damage to DNA.
    7. Lower free radical generation with reduced cell damage.
    8. Higher sex hormone binding globulin (low levels have a variety of harmful effects.)

    The above assumes similar economic status, lifestyle, and body proportions. Height is about 10% of the longevity picture. Therefore, tall people can offset their tall height by improved nutrition, lower weight and lifestyle habits. However, I found that we lose about 1.3 years per inch of increased height.

    For more information on how our physiology, performance and impact on resources and the environment change with increasing body size, see http://www.humanbodysize.com
    The book, The Truth About Your Height, provides information on height as well.