An important prerequisite for intelligence is a good short-term memory which can store and process the information needed for ongoing processes. This 'working memory' is a kind of mental notepad – without it, we could not follow a conversation, do mental arithmetic or play any simple game.
A new study has discovered neurons allowing crows to remember short-term. In the animal kingdom, the group of birds including crows and ravens, the corvids, are known for their intelligence because they have just such a working memory, but their endbrain – which is highly-developed but has a fundamentally different structure from that of mammals – has no cerebral cortex; and that is the part of the brain which in mammals produces the working memory.
So how do corvids manage to have a working memory with no cerebral cortex?
To answer that question, three researchers from the Institute for Neurobiology at Tübingen University taught crows to play a version of the children’s game of “pairs.” Using a computer monitor, Lena Veit, Konstantin Hartmann and Professor Andreas Nieder briefly showed the crows a random image.
The crows had to remember it for one second before choosing the same image from a selection of four by tapping the remembered picture with their beaks. In order to choose the correct image, they must have stored it in a working memory – which they appeared to do quite easily.
Crows were able to select the picture they had just seen from a number of images. Tübingen researchers discovered which cells were activated to briefly store and process information. Image: LS Tierphysiologie
Simultaneous measurements of electric potentials in the crows’ brains showed that nerve cells in one particular area of the endbrain were responsible for this capacity to remember. Although the image had disappeared from the screen, those cells remained active during the short period of remembering – retaining the information about the image until the crow retrieved it in order to make the right choice. If a crow couldn’t remember and selected a wrong image, those particular endbrain cells were barely activated. Prolonged activation of such cells ensured that important information could be stored and later accessed.
Nieder and his team concluded that cognitive abilities are possible in a range of differently-structured brains.
“Clearly, a good working memory – an important characteristic of human beings – can also exist without a layered cerebral cortex. The corvids’ fundamentally differently-structured endbrain shows that evolution has found a number of independent solutions,” says Lena Veit.
There are great benefits in the ability to temporarily store information. “An organism with a good working memory is intelligent; it is released from the compulsion to respond immediately to stimuli,” says Professor Nieder. “The big question is now – how do neural networks in the brain have to be composed in order to actively store and process information?”
Citation: Lena Veit, Konstantin Hartmann, Andreas Nieder, Neuronal Correlates of Visual Working Memory in the Corvid Endbrain, Journal of Neuroscience, June 4, 2014, DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0612-14.2014
- PHYSICAL SCIENCES
- EARTH SCIENCES
- LIFE SCIENCES
- SOCIAL SCIENCES
Subscribe to the newsletter
Stay in touch with the scientific world!
Know Science And Want To Write?
- Moderate Pot Use By Adolescents Doesn't Hurt IQ
- Dopamine Receptor Agonist Drugs Linked To Gambling And Hypersexuality
- What's Hiding Under The Clouds Of Venus - Heavy Metal Frost?
- Ashes And Vegetables: The Diet Of Roman Gladiators Was Rather Poor
- New Pill-only Regimens Cure Patients With Hardest-to-treat Hepatitis C Infection
- Government Math: More Will Lose Health Insurance Than Gained It If ACA Subsidies Are Eliminated
- Flow Machine: Hacking The Human Brain For Healing And Wellbeing
- "Since there's no actual link between vaccines and autism, I think the phrase Vaccines have been..."
- "I'll not argue that humanity made God in their image, because we sought to explain something we..."
- "I think we all are atheist, agnostics, and believers throughout our life time. I also, think some..."
- "The scenario mentioned above (Poor person shows up at emergency room with a fever... No health..."
- "Actually, I used to believe. It was what I was taught as a child and I was raised a Christian...."
- Mutagenesis: One way Europeans wish it was 1936 again
- Closer examination of risk factors for Latinos underscores cultural diversity
- Saving bees requires less pesticides, changing farming
- Could GM plants replace airport security scanners?
- In a battle of brains, chimpanzees match human toddlers
- ‘Urban farmers’ behind GMO labeling initiatives
- UCSF researchers identify key factor in transition from moderate to problem drinking
- Expert highlights research innovation and is optimistic about the future of IBS treatment
- Alternate approach to traditional CPR saves lives
- Once CD8 T cells take on one virus, they'll fight others too
- 11 million will lose health insurance if ACA subsidies are eliminated, study finds
Books By Writers Here