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Jena's Roots In The Tree Of Life

Ernst Haeckel created the first phylogenetic ‘tree of life’ of organisms 150 years ago in Jena...

Australopithecus Afarensis: ‘Lucy’ Was A Tree Climber?

Evidence preserved in the internal skeletal structure of the famous Lucy fossil ( Australopithecus...

No Evidence For Age-based Mammography Cut-Off

There is no clear cut-off age to stop breast cancer screening, according to a new analysis which...

Neanderthals: Not So Dumb

Neanderthals modified their survival strategies even without external influences like environmental...

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Today it is common to refer to sugar and high-fructose corn syrup as "sugary ingredients." Sugar produced from sugar cane or sugar beets is called sucrose, which is a chemical compound in which glucose and fructose -- two different six-carbon, so-called simple sugars -- are chemically bound together.

In January of 2012, a new X-ray source flared and rapidly brightened in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), l2.5 million light-years from earth. The event was classified as an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), the second ever seen in M31 and efforts with X-ray telescopes and radio observatories resulted in the first detection of radio-emitting jets from a stellar-mass black hole outside our own galaxy.

A ULX is thought to be a binary system containing a black hole that is rapidly accreting gas from its stellar companion. To account for the high-energy output, gas must be flowing into the black hole at a rate very near a theoretical maximum - which astronomers do not yet fully understand.


Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor proteins is, shall we say, untraditional.  But it could mean new ways to treat cancer.

As an organism grows, proteins essential for fueling its prosperity typically toe a tight line, performing their jobs at the right place and time. If these proteins go rogue, disasters such as cancer can result.



The average premiums paid by employer-sponsored family health insurance plans rose  from $9,249 to $15,022 per year between 2003 and 2011 - a 62 percent increase, according to a new Commonwealth Fund report. The new report by the advocacy group tracks state trends in employer health insurance coverage and shows that health insurance costs rose faster than incomes in all states. 

Workers are also paying more out-of-pocket costs; as employer costs rose, employee payments for their share of health insurance premiums also rose, by 74 percent on average, and deductibles more than doubled, up 117 percent between 2003 and 2011, they say.


Vega is a summer star in the Northern Hemisphere, visible toward the west at sunset. Vega is the brightest star in the constellation Lyra and, at only 25 light years away, quite close, cosmically speaking. 

Due to its brightness, Vega has been used by astronomers as a touchstone to measure other stars' brightness for thousands of years - new findings say it may be more than 200 million years older than previously thought. The new estimation of Vega's age was made by more precisely measuring its spin speed with a tool called the Michigan Infrared Combiner, developed by John Monnier, associate professor of astronomy at the University of Michigan.