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    Landsat 8 Satellite Launch: Saving And Making Money With Earth Observations
    By Bente Lilja Bye | February 11th 2013 12:20 PM | 10 comments | Print | E-mail | Track Comments
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    Earth science expert and astrophysicist writes about Earth observation, geodesy, climate change, geohazards, water cycle and other science related...

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    NASA has got the hang of it now. Creating an almost unbearable suspense before the launching of a new satellite, that is. Actually, the last time NASA tortured us with excitement was in connection with a landing, and not a launching. I am of course referring to Curiosity's landing on Mars. That went well, to put it mildly. Both the 'show' and now the results that are ticking in from the mission. Currently it is drill baby, drill mode on Mars!

    Landsat 8 satellite
    Landsat 8 drawing. Credit: NASA

    Back on Earth, today Landsat 8 is about to be launched. I will be following that live, and so should you. Adding to the experience, I thought I'd share with you some fun facts and reflections on the Landsat program, including telling you why Landsat 8 is a brilliant investment.

    Landsat 8 satellite
    The Landsat 8 satellite and our planet. Credit: NASA

    Brief history

    The Landsat program started already back in 1972 so last year Landsat celebrated its 40th anniversary. The first satellite missions in the Landsat series lasted relatively short periods of time. They were certainly short if compared with the longest-operating Earth observation satellite, Landsat 5. In fact, this mission lasted so long it made it to Guinness Book of Records being in operation for 28 years and 10months.

    Today's NASA mission goes under the name LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) but it will become Landsat 8 when USGS takes over the operation once it flies properly. It is a fantastic program and you will understand why in a bit.

    Timeline Landsat program

    Timeline showing the development and lifespans of the Landsat satellites. Credit: NASA

    Turning Green Into Shades of Red
    There is a whole suite of instruments on-board the Landsat 8 satellite. These instruments allow us to look at the Earth in different light (different frequencies); optical, several infrareds and blue-ultra all in all 9 different spectral bands. The spatial resolution has been improved in Landsat 8, but there are other satellites that has better spatial resolutions (GEO-eye for instance). However, is not the improved spatial resolution alone that makes Landsat 8 a better tool than the former Landsats, it is the combination of spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric data that enthuse the scientists and that will result in tons of valuable new information about changes on our planet.

    So what is it with the green turning into shades of red? If you have seen some of the Landsat images showing the scars after fires they are often colored red. The red is just what they use to represent the infrared wavelengths that the human eye cannot see. So they pick a color that we actually can see. I deliberately wrote wavelengthS because there are several wavelengths of infrared and sometimes one can distinguish different kinds of vegetation this way as they reflect different wavelengths.  This way one can for instance observe the variety of agricultural 'products'. If a farmer is changing between different crops, the age of the crop etc. it can be detected by Landsat.  In particular, it is the changes we observe that have the biggest value to us, not only in agriculture, but in many, many other societal areas.

    Yellowstone

    The boundary between Yellowstone National Park and Targhee National Forest is clearly seen in this Landsat 7 image. On the right side of thevertical line running through the center of the image is mature forest located inside the park. In contrast, the forest to the left of the boundary is dominated by numerous clearcuts, shown as light orange/pink amidst the darker,greener forest. The stands of mature trees appear darker than the saplings, shrubs, and grasses growing in clearcuts becausethe tall trees shade the ground beneath them. The image was taken by Landsat 7 on July 13, 1999

    Unforeseen impact
    When asked what is the biggest impact the Landsat program has had, a choir of scientists says it is the ability to monitor change. Being able to not only get a still image, as in practice was the case in the beginning of Landsat as the processing time of each scene was several weeks, but to see what changes of the surface of the planet that take place is where the real power of Landsat lies. So, the very change monitoring was an unforeseen impact in itself. There are several secondary unforeseen impacts as well. For instance is it possible to see how the rainforest has been decreasing resulting in political actions to reduce the rate of change as well as enabling administration of regulations. Illegal mining is another activity that has had political consequences and so on. It turned out Landsat was a very powerful tool in land and natural resources management.

    The success of open data policy
    In the early days of the Landsat program it took weeks to process the satellite image, that you then would receive in paper version. Needless to say, that limited the number of satellite images produced and distributed pr year. Even in 1999, when the digital technology was up and running, only around 100 images pr day were produced - and then delivered on a CD or tape, not over the internet. It wasn't until 2008 when they combined modern technology with fast processing and immediate downlinking AND free access that the use of Landsat data massively increased.

    What is remarkable about the Landsat program is that all the data is now freely available, not only to US citizens, not only to public sector, but globally to all kinds of users be it the public or private sector. The resulting numbers are an immense driver creating new markets that nobody really expected. We consume satellite images for its esthetic value (ref Earth as Art for instance), for private us and for numerous societal uses that saves lives (disaster management), increase productivity (agriculture) etc.

    GEOSS
    GEO's Global Earth Observing System of Systems provides a framework for discussing open data policicy. The US is one of the initiators and active members of this community. The Landsat program is considered a Best Practice in terms of open data sharing nationally as well as across boarders.

    The US, through its demonstration of how beneficial free access to data is, has influenced the entire world. In the Group of Earth Observation open access to Earth observations is a key element in building an interoperable Global Earth Observing System of Systems. It is of course not possible to build anything interoperable if one does not share! The Landsat program is one of the successful references to why this is a good idea also for other more reluctant countries - and international programs. I'd say it is a direct link between GEO's work on open data policy and the EU's decision to share the coming Sentinel data, and that China is now opening up and sharing some of their satellite data as well.

    The Landsat Business model
    Lawrence FriedlThe open data sharing policy is a foundation of the Landsat business model. In 2008 USGS made all, now, 3.7 million satellite images freely available to the public. Besides following a use-taxpayers-money-only-once principle, it was believed that the increased accessibility would inspire more innovative projects both publicly and privately. And the use of Landsat data exploded. From some 25000 downlinks pr year to 3 million downlinks! In some ways it is similar to the freemium business model. It works. Although the largest user group are governmental improving services within homeland security, water management etc, there are some major enterprises to be found as well. Google is one of the most prominent users of Landsat data but we have also seen innovations like the ESRI's ChangeMatters.
    NASA's Lawrence Fridl is one of
    the GEO community's ambassadors
    for showing the socio-economic
    benefits from Earth observations.
    Credit: B L Bye


    The investment in Landsat 8 is estimated to 1 billion USD. Sounds like a lot of money, and it is. But when you consider the ROI (Return On Investment) of the Landsat program today of 1 billion pr YEAR, that sounds like something I would put my money (and taxes) into. It is not often you find investment object where the ROI is met in one year.

    How can anybody afford not to share their data for free? Beats me!

    Will we see 40 more years of Earth observations? I most certainly hope so and we should all cross our fingers for today's important launch of the next member of the Landsat family. As they say in China and Ireland: May the wind be at your back!

    Braze yourself for the Landsat thrill; lift-off is scheduled at 10:02 am PST today Monday 11 February 2013.

    Update: So far so good, 10:22 am PST!

    ~

    Useful links to more details about the Landsat program:

    Landsat history:http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/about/timeline.html

    The World of Change:http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/

    Preparing for the launch:http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/blogs/earthmatters/2013/02/10/landsat-8-launch-at-the-top-of-the-tower/#

    Landsat 40 year anniversary galleryhttp://landsat.usgs.gov/Landsat_Missions_40th_Anniversary_Gallery.php

    USGS Landsat page:http://landsat.usgs.gov/

    NASA Landsat page:http://www.nasa.gov/landsat

    NASA Landsat science:http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov

    US-GEO: http://usgeo.gov/

    Earth as Art:http://eros.usgs.gov/imagegallery/

    Landsat 8 elements:http://ldcm.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft_instruments.html

    Landsat Fact Sheet:http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/716684main_LDCMFactSheet.pdf

    Comments

    Stellare
    Watch the launch here: http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/index.html

    10:44 am PST: Right now a break, but will resume when the satellite are about to be released from the rocket. A critical moment in the launch!! Expected to happen 11:05 am PST.

    Update: Landsat is now in orbit!
    Bente Lilja Bye is the author of Lilja - A bouquet of stories about the Earth
    thanks

    It is really awesome that we will be able to collect all that new data, and that the public will be able to access all of it. The fact that now we have new wavelengths that can track change in different levels of the earth's crust is amazing. It is also really interesting that NASA was able to successfully land that rover after they had some troubles in the past, and that this launch was so successful with all the possible factors involved in projectile motion. Hopefully its data can help with climate change and utilization of the earth's resources.

    Stellare
    Hi Tommy,

    The Landsat program is really an amazing success, not only for the US but for everybody on this planet. The continuity of the missions is of incredible value for studying change. All kinds of change, not only climate change. The Landsat 8 launching was a very important moment particularly because we risked loosing that long continuous time series of data. Good thing everything went well! :-)
    Bente Lilja Bye is the author of Lilja - A bouquet of stories about the Earth
    This sharing of data is a wonderfull developement and should encourage every nation to follow suit.As Martin Luther King's father said"If people knew better they'd do better".

    Stellare
    Yes, I think Martin Luther King's farther is right! :-)

    Here you see that ESA and NASA are synchronizing their satellite missions. The comparable Sentinel and Landsat 8 data shall be offered in a way that the users can integrate them. Very good!

    http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/GMES/ESA_NASA_coll...
    Bente Lilja Bye is the author of Lilja - A bouquet of stories about the Earth
    Stellare
    I think this is fun. Somebody read my article in China and translated it somehow (my Chinese isn't good enough to judge how well it is translated) You can find it here if you like. Small world, huh?

    我写Landsat 8卫星的文章发射了在空间
    碧珺

    http://blog.csdn.net/dajuan1989/article/details/8587671
    Bente Lilja Bye is the author of Lilja - A bouquet of stories about the Earth
    Hank
    What, the Chinese stole and plagiarized?  There is whole TV show in Russia called Science 2.0.  They both refused to sign the international intellectual property agreement so it's open season on anything they want to steal. It's a real problem, even for Chinese research. 
    Stellare
    Well, I think this is OK since they are introducing me in favorable terms in the beginning and even explicitly recommended reading the original article with a link back here. To me, they are giving proper credit making this website known in China.

    As for stealing and plagiarize, that goes on in the US big time too. Our shows over at Astrocast.TV have been taken up (nice wording) by several big players. There isn't much one can do in the US either.

    They created a Science 2.0 in Russia? And you have a trademark, haven't you on Science 2.0? Trademarks and patents only applies country wise so if you haven't done a global trademarking they are perhaps free to do it?
    Bente Lilja Bye is the author of Lilja - A bouquet of stories about the Earth
    Hank
    No, there is an international treaty signed by 150 countries but Russia and China are not among them.  No small company could afford to register in all those countries so a registration in one is registration in all.

    Otherwise, Norway could simply deny a US registration for iPhone and Google and let their own companies create those brands locally - and even reverse engineer an iPhone and sell it using the iPhone name wherever they wanted. If someone took content from Astrocast you should go after them.  A US lawyer would love to do that for you because it is easy money for both of you.

     People have tried to put up the Russian 'Science 2.0' videos on US services but I have had the video companies remove them.  So they are limited to places like China and Russia or to places where I have not discovered them.